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SC HIST 101 - The Hellenistic World

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I. The Hellenistic WorldII. Phillip II of Macedon, r. 359-336 BCIII. Alexander the Great, 356-323 BCIV. Alexander’s ConquestsV. Alexander as Emperor?VI. The Hellenistic KingdomsHIST 101 1nd Edition Lecture 8Outline of LectureI. The Hellenistic World- Philip II of Macedon, r. 359-336 B.C. - Alexander the Great, 356-323 B.C. - Alexander’s Conquests- Alexander as Emperor? - The Hellenistic KingdomsAlexander invented globalization. When do you stop conquering? Does Alexander even want to rule?Hellenistic world bound together by language and culture. Lecture NotesII. Phillip II of Macedon, r. 359-336 BC- Kingdom in northern Greece- Decline of the poleis after the Peloponnesian Waro Southern Greek city states are tired and poor due to war amongst themselves- Philip seizes the throne, c. 359 B.C. - A professional armyo The Macedonian phalanx; the Companions (cavalry) Efficient fighting force - Expansion in the north, settling frontiers ; then focuses on the South o Philip’s real goal – invade the Persian Empire  But first has to make sure Greece is back together - Athens rejects Philip’s overtures, 348 B.C.o Demosthenes, 384-322 B.C.- War with Athens, 338 B.C.o Battle of Chaeronea – Athens is defeated by Phillip  Forced to accept Phillip’s ruleo League of Corinth – league of cities headed by Phillip III. Alexander the Great, 356-323 BC- Phillip is murdered and son Alexander takes his place on the throne- Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.o Philoi, Sophia“Love of Wisdom” – philosophy o The ideal government? – how should people be ruled  Plato, c. 427-347 B.C.-Republic, c.360 B.C.o Tutors Alexander, 343-340 B.C.- Assumed throne of Macedon, 336 B.C. - Revolts in Greek cities because Alexander was only 20 (too young, untested, and weak)o Thebes- Invasion of the Persian Empire, 334 B.C.- Darius III, r. 336-330 B.C. – Persian Emperor IV. Alexander’s Conquests- Conquests in Anatolia  Levant  EAST- Palestine, 333 B.C. – Israel & Judah had been conquered by Persia o Assyrian Empire and Israel, 722 B.C.  Sargon II, r. 722-705 B.C.o Chaldeans and Judah, 586 B.C. Nebuchadnezzar II, r. 604-562 B.C.o Persian Empire, 538 B.C. Cyrus the Great, r. 559-530 B.C.- Egypt, 332 B.C.o Assyrian Empire, 671-667 B.C. Assurbanipal, r. 669-627 B.C.o Persian Empire, 525 B.C. Cambyses II, r. 530-522 B.C. (“Mesuti-Ra”)- Battle of Gaugamela, 331 B.C.o Northern Iraq – Defeats the Persian Army o Death of Darius III – after trying to buy him off, Darius runs away, and is later killed - Sacking of Persepolis, 330 B.C. - Babylon, 330 B.C.- Roxane (c. 343-310 B.C.), 327 B.C.o Bactria – Northern Afghanistan - Invasion of India, 326 B.C.o Soldiers ask “When do we stop?” o Mutiny against him o “When and why do you stop?” - Alexander’s death in Babylon, 323 B.C.V. Alexander as Emperor?- How does “conquest” differ from “governing”?o Did Alexander even want to govern?- What kind of government?- Foundation of new poleiso Most famous is Alexandria in Egypto Leaves some of his men at the cities - A new nobilityo Marriage policy – men at the cities marry native women so that the local people have some sort of investment o Personal loyalty- Succession?o “to the strongest” – causes civil war o Divinity and immortality- Disintegration of Alexander’s empireo Diadochi – generals who surrounded Alexander o Death of Alexander IV (b. 323 B.C.) and Roxane, c. 310 – both murdered during struggle for power VI. The Hellenistic Kingdoms - Alexander’s Empire broken up into successor states - Ptolemaic Egypto Ptolemy I, d. 284 B.C.Meryamun Setepenreo Ptolemaic Dynasty, 305 B.C. - 30 B.C. o Alexandria, 332 B.C. - Seleucid Asiao Seleucus I, d. 281 B.C.- Antigonid Macedon and Greeceo Antigonus, general of Alexander, 382-301 B.C. Antigonus I “Cyclops,” r. 306-301 B.C.o Achaean League and the Aetolian League- “Hellenization” – everyone speaks Greek-Koine – common Greek


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