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NDSU CHEM 122 - Solubility in Liquid

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CHEM 122 11th Edition Lecture 11 Outline of Last LectureI. Physical properties of solutionsa. Concentration of solutionsII. System of Units for Dilute Solutionsa. Parts per millionb. Parts per billionc. Mole fractiond. Molaritye. MolalityIII. Solution FormationIV. Solution ProcessOutline of Current Lecture:I. Solubilitya. Saturated solutionb. Supersaturated solutionII. Solubility of two liquidsIII. Solubility of Gases in LiquidsCurrent LectureSolubility: The maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a given temperatureThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best Used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Measured in moles solute /liter solution or g solute/100g solvent- Saturated Solution: dissolving process proceeds until no further solute dissolveso When the solution is saturated the rate of dissolving and crystallizing processes are exactly balanced.o Dynamic equilibrium: no net change in the concentrated of dissolved solute.- Supersaturated Solution: a solution that has more dissolved solute than the solubility permits.o How can a supersaturated solution be prepared? Heat a saturated solution to change solubility. Filter the hot solution to get rid of any remaining any solid solute. When the solution cools the solubility is reduced but cant crystallize until some solute is added back to the solution, creating a supersaturated solution. When a tiny tiny amount of solute is dropped back into thesolution the crystallization proceeds rapidly until solubility concentrations are met.- Molecular crystalline solids do not dissociate into ions when dissolved, they stay as intact molecules- Molecular acids and bases dissociate to some extent to yield ions.Solubility of Two Liquids:- Miscible: two liquids are soluble in all proportionso Ex: water and ethanol mix completely.- Immiscible: liquids that aren’t solubleo Ex: water and oil. Oil sits on top of water because they don’t mix.Liquids that are miscible have similar intermolecular forces and immiscible don’t.Solubility of Gases in Liquids:- Gas dissolve in liquids to form solutions. For a gas molecule to dissolve in a liquid it must strike the surface of the liquid and get captured by the liquid.- As partial pressure of the gas increases, there are more collisions of gas molecules with the surface resulting in more gas dissolving.- Henry’s Law: C=k Pgo C: solubility of the gas in the solvent (g/L)o Henry’s Law ConstantoPg: Partial pressure of the gas over the solution (atm, torr)- Solubility at two partial pressures: C1P1=c2P2o If the solubility is known at once partial pressure, then the solubility at another partial pressure can be


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