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UM BIOH 113 - Membranes and Body Cavities

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BIOH 113 1st Edition Lecture 3Outline of Last Lecture I. Feedback SystemsII. Negative FeedbackIII. Positive FeedbackIV. Language of AnatomyV. Major Body RegionsOutline of Current Lecture I. Anatomical TerminologyII. Body CavitiesIII. MembranesIV. Other Body CavitiesCurrent LectureI. Anatomical Terminologya. Directional Terms:b. Superior (Cranial)- above, top, toward headc. Inferior (caudal)-below bottom away from headd. Anterior (ventral)- towards the fronte. Posterior(dorsal)- towards the backf. Medial- toward the midlineg. Lateral- away from the midlineh. Intermediate- between medial and laterali. Proximal- nearest to the originationj. Distal- farther from the originationk. Ipsilateral- same side of the bodyl. Contralateral- opposite side of the bodym. Superficial- towards the surfacen. Deep- towards the core of the bodyThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.II. Body Cavities a. Human organs develop within two major body cavities:i. The brain and spinal cord develop in a dorsal cavity ii. The remaining body organs are found in the ventral body cavityiii. Both dorsal and ventral cavities have subdivisionsb. Cranial cavity- formed by cranial bones and contains braini. Vertebral canal- formed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and the beginnings of spinal nervesc. Thoracic cavity- chest cavity; contains pleural and pericardial cavities and mediastinumi. Pleural cavity- each surrounds a lungii. Pericardial cavity- surrounds the heartiii. Mediastinum- central portion of the thoracic cavity between the lungs; extends from sternum to vertebral column and from first rib to diaphragm; contains heart, thymus, esophagus, trachea, and several largeblood vesselsd. Abdominopelvic cavity- subdivided into abdominal and pelvic cavitiesi. Abdominal cavity- contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, and most of large intestineii. Pelvic cavity- contains urinary bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproductionIII. Membranes and Body Cavitiesa. Membranes line the major body cavities b. The dorsal cavity is lined with meningesc. Meninges consist of three layers:i. Dura mater- the most superficial and “durable” layerii. Arachnoid mater- intermediate and has a web-like structureiii. Pia mater- the deepest layer and most gentleiv. Meninges help to circulate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)d. The ventral body cavity is lined with serous membranese. Serous Membranes:i. Covers viscera within ventral cavitiesii. Lines walls of thorax and abdomeniii. Two layers:1. Parietal layer lines walls of cavities2. Visceral layer covers organsiv. Filled with serous fluid which is secreted into space between layers1. This reduces friction and allows viscera to slide past one another during movementsv. Pleural cavities- pleuravi. Pericardial cavity- pericardiumvii. Abdominal cavity- peritoneum1. Visceral peritoneum covers abdominal viscera2. Parietal peritoneum lines cavity walls3. Retroperitoneal organs are behind the peritoneuma. Kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum (beginning of small intestine), colon, some aorta and inferior vena cavaIV. Other Body Cavitiesa. Oral cavity- contains the tongue and teethb. Nasal cavity- part of the upper airwaysc. Orbital cavities- contain eyeballs and various nerves and blood vesselsd. Middle ear cavities- contain small bones of the middle eare. Synovial cavities- found in freely moveable jointsi. Example- large joints of the shoulder and


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