This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5-6 out of 17 pages.

View Full Document
View Full Document

End of preview. Want to read all 17 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a GradeBuddy member to access this document.

View Full Document
Unformatted text preview:

Bio 358 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 8Lecture 1 (January 13)Definition of a Marine Mammal: a functional descriptor of a diverse assemblage of distantly related mammals that spend some or all of their life in a marine (or aquatic) environmentMarine mammals are not an evolutionary valid grouping, they are not monophyletic as a whole and they are a FUNCTIONAL GROUPING4 anatomical adaptations marine mammals have in common: - Body streamlining = minimum protuberances, fusiform body shape, genitalia internal - Reduced or modified appendages = pectorals (flippers), pelvic (reduced or absent in fullyaquatic orders)- Insulation = fur or blubber- LARGE body size3 physiological adaptations marine mammals have in common: - Enhanced breath holding capabilities – apnea- Specialized thermoregulatory capabilities and vascular structures –water sucks heat away 25x faster than air- Specialized sensory systems – light is attenuated in water Humans have direct and indirect effects on marine mammals:- Direct = hunting/exploitation for oil, fur, meat- Indirect = global climate change, fishing, SONAR (louddd), toxins, habitat destruction, vessel strikes… Lecture 2 (January 15) Scientific Names to Know:Eumetopias jubatus Stellar’s Sea LionCallorhinus ursinus Northern fur SealCystophora cristata Hooded seal Leptonychotes weddelli Weddel sealMirounga leonine Southern elephant sealOdobenus rosmarus WalrusEnhydra lutris Sea otterUrsus maritimus Polar bearDugong dugon DugongTrichechus manatus West Indian manateeHydrodamalis gigas Stellar’s sea cowEubalaena glacialis Northern right whaleBalaenoptera musculus Blue whaleMegaptera novaeangliae Humpback whaleEschrichtius robustus Grey whalePhyseter macrocephalus Sperm whaleTasmacetus shepherdi Shepherd’s beaked whaleMesoplodon densirostris Blainsville’s beaked whaleZiphius cavirostris Cuvier’s beaked whaleTursiops truncatus Bottlenose dolphinGrampus griseus Risso’s dolphinPhocoena phocoena Harbor porpoise Poceana sinus Vequita Lipotes vexillifer Baji Mirounga angustirostris Northern elephant sealMonachus schauinslandi Hawaiian monk sealMonachus tropicalis Caribbean monk sealTaxonomy of marine mammals to know: Phylum = Chordota Subphylum = Vertebrata Class = Mammalia 3 Orders: Order Carnivora (5 families)- Otariidae – sea lions and fur seals- Phocidae – true seals- Odebenidae – walruses- Ursidae – polar bear- Mustelidae – marine and sea otterOrder Sirenia ( 2 families)- Trichechidae - manatees- Dugongidae – dugong and stellars sea cow Order Cetacea Suborder Mysticeti - Balaenidae – right whales - Balaeniopteridae – rorquals - Neobalaenidae – pygmy right whale - Eschrichtiidae – grey whale Suborder Odontoceti: - Physeteridae – sperm whale- Kogiidae – dwarf and pygmy sperm whales- Ziphiidae – beaked whales- Monodontidae – beluga, narwhal- Delphinidae – dolphins- Phocoenidae – porpoises- Platanistidae – Ganges and Indus river dolphins- Iniidae – Amazonian river dolphin (AKA boto)- Lipotidae – Yangtze river dolphin (AKA baiji)- Pontoporiidae –franciscana (AKA La Plata dolphin)Pinniped – carnivora – “fin-footed” – fissipeds “split-footed” All have: Large body size; Fur or blubber = insulation; Streamline body; Modified appendages = flippers; Enhanced diving; Enhanced thermoregulation; Enhanced sensory systems (for seeing/hearing/feeling in dark water); need hard substrate to breed = more vulnerable to human impact Human effects: Direct = hunting for fur/oil and hunting as competitors in fisheries; indirect = competition for space, bicatch/injured in fisheries, pollution As a whole they are a cosmopolitan group meaning you can find them all over; but no single species is cosmopolitan 3 Families: Otariidae, Phocidae, Odobenidae Otariidae: 14 species; external pinnae; hind flippers CAN be brought under the body; wing like fore flippers for “flying” underwater; 4 teats; scrotal; live in marine habitats Example species: - Stellar’s Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus)- “broad forhead and mane”: largest otariids; sexually dimorphic; aggressive animal; extremely exploited; threatened and endangered under MMPA in different part’s of its range; threatened by accidental and intentional fishery interactions and competition with humans for fish. - Galapagos Sea Lion: Walks on land using both fore and hind limbs; flying motion underwater with pec flippers for thrust; uses lift base thrust forces, entire stroke generates thrust.- California Sea Lion: only species with visible ears- Northern Fur Seal (Callorhinus ursinus) –“beautifully furred bear”: discovered by Stellar and Pribiof in mid 1700’s; smaller than sea lions with pointed nose, unregulated hunting for 100 years = near extinction; 1911 North Pacific Fur Seal Convention = first international wildlife conservation movement = only subsistence hunting permitted. Phocidae: 19 species, NO external pinnae; hind flippers CANNOT be brought under the body; foreflipper short and stubby = not for locomotion; locomotion with hind flippers; 2 teats; ascrotal; marine with a few freshwater;50-75 million individuals ~90% of all pinnipeds.Example species: - Ringed Seal: Smallest seal; Polar bear’s favorite dinner; Hide pups in “ice lairs” = little cave of ice.- Weddel Seal (Leptonychotes weddelli): Placid animal; Feeds on fishes;Great divers – 300 meters for 70 minutes; Not afraid of humans; remarkable divers – over 600 m; 70 minutes- Hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) “nose carries bladder”- shortest lactation of any mammal ~4 days; milk = 60% fat; pups gain ~15 lbs per day; bilobed nose pumped with blood = display for fighting and sex; secondary sex characteristic - Baikal Seal: Only live in 1 lake in Baikal Siberia; Exclusively freshwater.- Leopard seal: Live in the Antarctic; High endothermic vertebrate predator eat phocid pups and seals- Crab-eater seal: Doesn’t eat crabs; most abundant pinniped; teeth form a sieve for catching krill; doing well - fell into a niche left open by human hunting of krill eating whales - Southern Elephant Seal (Mirounga leonine): Largest pinniped -5m long and up to 5,000 kg; Best diving record: 2 hours, 1500 meters- Northern Elephant Seal (Mirounga angustirostris): Second largest pinniped; deep diver; well studied; hunted to near extinction in 18,00’s (only 10-12 individuals); today over 110,000 individuals = success story. - Hawaiian Monk Seal (Monachus schauinslandi): Highly


View Full Document
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Exam 1 Study Guide and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?