TAMU POLS 206 - Exam 3 Study Guide (9 pages)

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Exam 3 Study Guide

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Exam 3 Study Guide


Study Guide
Texas A&M University
Pols 206 - Amer Natnl Govt
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POLS 206 1st Edition Exam 3 Study Guide Ch 11 Congress the center of policy making o 11 1 Members Not a glamorous job but there are perks Power 174 000 annual salary Generous retirement and health benefits Constitutional requirements House 25 citizen for 7 years Senate 30 citizen for 9 years Reside in state 435 representatives 100 senators Demographics Descriptive vs substantive representation Descriptive How much do they look like their constituents Do they No Substantive Representation of the interest of groups Do they Yes o 11 2 Who wins elections Incumbents Over 90 win reelection Senators do not have it as easy 80 85 Incumbents perceive themselves as vulnerable Hence fundraising and campaigning Advantages of Incumbency Advertising Constituent contact Credit claiming Casework Pork barrel projects Position taking Weak opponents Campaign spending PACs give primarily to incumbents Usually outspend competitor 3 or 4 to 1 Role of Party Identification Parties and districts Drawn for one party dominance Defeating Incumbents Challengers are na ve But sometimes incumbents are vulnerable Redistricting Public mood Open Seats and Stability and Change Vacant Seat no incumbent running Most turnover occurs here Stability from incumbency Development of expertise Term limits Lecture 15 o 11 3 American Bicameralism need to know differences between houses Bicameral Legislature set up by Article I in the Constitution Bills must pass both houses Checks and balances Result of Connecticut Compromise Great Compromise House More institutionalized and seniority based More rules governing them than Senate Rules Committee Rules Committee Limit debate Set rules for debate and vote of bills Senate Filibuster unlimited debate Only in Senate Used to need 60 to stop a filibuster Now its only 51 Possible that Senate may do away with filibuster Less centralized and seniority based Power gap isn t as large as House Know table of responsibilities in book Congressional Leadership Chosen by party House Speaker of the House Majority and minority leaders Assist speaker Whips Other leadership roles that assist majority minority leader Senate Vice president Technically presiding officer In practice the majority leader Majority leader Committees and Subcommittees where the bulk of the work is done Four types of committees Standing committees most important Permanent Joint committees Members of house and senate study or research committees Conference committees 5 members from house and 5 members from senate Iron out differences between bills passed in House and Senate Select committees For a special purpose Executive oversight some executive has done something wrong Committees at work legislation Legislative oversight investigate why the executive branch is not doing what they are supposed to be doing Getting on a Committee Constituent needs want to be on committees that help you get reelected Appealing to leadership Caucuses Informal Organization of Congress As important as formal structure Dominated by caucuses 500 caucuses today Goal is to promote their interests Black caucus Hispanic caucus Lecture 16 Congressional Staff Personal Staff Casework o Legislative functions Committee Staff 2000 staff members Legislative oversight Staff agencies know for test Congressional Research Service CRS Headed by Library of Congress Get about 5000 requests for information every year Government Accountability Office GAO Investigate if bills are being implemented correctly and whether money is being spent correctly Congressional Budget Office CBO Make economic forecasts Policy predictions Tell congress how much things will cost they can only go buy what is in the bill 11 4 Know figure 11 2 how a bill becomes a law How a Bill Becomes a Law Goes to House and is sent to a committee In committee it can be pigeon holed it is basically dead Can receive a discharge petition to revive it 218 votes in house If passed then it goes to rules committee where debate rules are set and is then sent to House where it is debated If passed it then goes to Senate to repeat the process but without a rules committee Senate doesn t have as many rules on debate If passed it goes to conference committee to iron out differences and is sent back to both Houses for vote If passed it goes to President for signature or veto Veto it goes back to congress and needs a 2 3 vote to overturn Presidents and Congress Partners and Protagonists President s legislative agenda Persuade Congress Work at the margins but usually win Yet Congress is quite independent Party Constituency and Ideology Party Influence Economic and social welfare policies o Polarized politics Parties more internally homogeneous Less likelihood of compromise Constituency opinion vs member ideology Trustees versus instructed delegates Trustee make decisions on what they think is best for us Instructed delegate do what constituents want Politico combines the two 11 5 Congress and Democracy Democracy depends upon representation Congress unrepresentative Members are elites Leadership chosen not elected Senate based on states not population Obstacles to good representation Constituent service Reelection campaigns Representativeness vs Effectiveness Congress and the Scope of Government Does the size of government increase to please the public Pork barrel spending Contradictory preferences Against large government for individual programs Ch 12 The Presidency o 12 1 Great Expectations Are expectations realistic Ensure peace prosperity and security Power does not match responsibility Cognitive dissonance Americans want a strong leader but fear concentration of power We want government to be small and limited yet solve all social and economic problems Who They Are Basic requirements Constitutionally Natural born citizen 35 years of age or older Resident of the US for previous 14 years White male protestant Lecture 17 o o How They Got There Elections The Typical Road to the White House most presidents assume presidency through electoral process Twenty Second Amendment 1951 Limits presidents to two terms in office or 10 years Succession Twenty Fifth Amendment 1967 Outlines the line of succession and the procedures Line of succession president vice president speaker of the house senate president pro tempe then cabinet heads then supreme court justices Impeachment Act of Impeachment Indictment House acts as grand jury if they decide there is enough evidence then he has been impeached and will go to trial in the

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