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UW-Madison BOTANY 422 - Mediterranean Biome

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Mediterranean BiomeMediterranean Biome““The similarity of form and functionalThe similarity of form and functionalresponse of the vegetation to the rigorousresponse of the vegetation to the rigorousmediterranean environment is therefore amediterranean environment is therefore astriking example of evolutionarystriking example of evolutionaryconvergence, and has resulted in a highconvergence, and has resulted in a highdegree of endemism within the regionaldegree of endemism within the regionalfloras." (Archibold, 1995)floras." (Archibold, 1995)Mediterranean Biome the Mediterranean biome occurs between approximately 30° to 40° northand south latitude on the west sides of continents. This biome lies justpoleward of the subtropical deserts on the western continental edges.Mediterranean Biome the Mediterranean biome receives subtropical dry and warm air insummer accentuated by cold currents. In winter, as subtropical highsretreat toward equator, they experience maritime airmasses and cyclonicstorms from polar front These regions have been called 'winter-rain andsummer dry' climates.MediterraneanDesertMediterranean Biome the Mediterranean biome is sandwiched betweendeserts and temperate rainforests on west sides ofcontinents - experience both but in alternatingseasonsMediterraneanDesertTemperate rainforestBiome types on westside of ChileMediterranean BiomePasadena - classicMediterranean climate (6months rain, 6 months dry)San Diego - shift to moredesert conditions (reducedwinter rain)Vancouver - approachingtemperate rainforest (slightsummer dry period)Mediterranean Floristic Regions Californian MediterraneanChilean Capensic (South African) AustralianMediterranean Floristic Regions Californian Mediterranean Chilean Capensic (South African) AustralianWhat do these sound like?Wines!Vitis vinifera - wine grapeMediterranean Vegetation the Mediterranean Biome and its vegetation is closely linked with fireecologyAdenostoma (chamise,Rosaceae) CaliforniaSanta Barbara fire 1977Santa Barbara chapparal 40 yr cycle - South Africa 10-25 yr - Mediterranean 10-13 yr - AustraliaMediterranean Vegetation the Mediterranean Biome and its vegetation is closely linked with fireecologySanta Barbara fire 1977Westmont College fire Nov 2008Westmont College Jan 2009Mediterranean Vegetation heavy bark, shoots from base roots or lignotubersArbutus - EuropeArctostaphylos (manzanita) & chamise3 months after fireArbutus (madrone-Ericaceae)3 months after fireMediterranean Vegetation serotinous cones or seed coatsBanksia (Proteaceae) - AustraliaPinus halepensis - MediterraneanMediterranean Vegetation Mediterranean vegetationdominated by evergreen trees andsclerophyllous trees adapted to fireand to summer drought and coolmoist wintersCeanothus - California lilacQuercus engelmanii - mesa oakMediterranean Vegetation Mediterranean vegetation alsocharacterized by annuals andperennial geophytesNorthern Baja CaliforniaCentral Valley, CaliforniaMediterranean Vegetation the “holly” leaf (= ilicifolia) - evergreen, tough, leathery, with spinetips - is a sclerophyll adaptation to the Mediterranean climate and hasarisen numerous times in different places and in unrelated familiesRhamnus ilicifolia(Rhamnaceae) -CaliforniaBanksia ilicifolia(Proteaceae) - AustraliaIlex (Aquifoliaceae)Holly - MediterraneanMediterranean VegetationAlchornea illicifolia(Euphorbiaceae) -AustraliaGraptophyllum ilicifolium(Acanthaceae) - AustraliaBerberis ilicifolia(Berberidaceae) - ChileMediterranean VegetationPrunus ilicifolium (Rosaceae) -CaliforniaQuercus ilex (Fagaceae) -MediterraneanMahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae) -California, OregonConvergence between Chile and CaliforniaLithraea caustica (Anacardiaceae) - ChileRhus ovata(Anacardiaceae) CAConvergence between Chile and CaliforniaCryptocarya alba (Lauraceae) - ChileQuercus agrifolia(Fagaceae) CAConvergence between Chile and CaliforniaSatureja gilliesii (Lamiaceae) - ChileAdenostoma fasciculatum(Rosaceae) CA“heath” vegetationMediterranean Floristic Regions Mediterranean - most original woodland now gone maquis: dense shrub formations garrique: open heath and aromatic shrubsGreece Southern FranceMediterranean Floristic Regions MediterraneanArbutus (Ericaceae) - strawberry treesMediterranean Floristic Regions MediterraneanIlex (Aquifoliaceae)- hollyOlea (Oleaceae) - oliveQuercus suber - cork oakQuercus ilex - Holm’soakMediterranean Floristic Regions MediterraneanMediterranean Floristic Regions MediterraneanCedrus atlantica - Atlas cedarCedrus libani -cedar of LebanonErica arborea(Ericaceae) -Iberian PeninsulaUlex europea (Fabaceae) -Common gorseMediterranean Floristic Regions MediterraneanCytisus (Fabaceae) - broomCistis (Cistaceae) -eastern MediterraneanMediterranean Floristic Regions MediterraneanPhlomis fruticosa (Lamiaceae)Jerusalem sageArtemisia arborescens(Asteraceae) - wormwoodOphrys (Orchidaceae) -bee orchidMediterranean Floristic Regions MediterraneanMediterranean Floristic Regions South Africa veld: shrubby vegetation fynbos: heathMediterranean Floristic Regions South Africa - high degree of endemismProtea -ProteaceaeMediterranean Floristic Regions South AfricaErica versicolor Erica cerinthoidesLarge radiation of Erica - heather(blueberry family)Mediterranean Floristic Regions South AfricaLarge radiation of Restionaceae - asouthern hemisphere graminoid familyElegia cuspidata AskidiospermaMediterranean Floristic Regions South AfricaLarge radiation of lilioid monocots(geophytes)GeissorhizaMoraea - Peacock LilyLapeirousiaIridaceae - iris familyMediterranean Floristic Regions South AfricaLarge radiation of Pelargonium(Geraniaceae)Mediterranean Floristic Regions Australia - mallee (heathy vegetation on nutrient poor soil)Sir Joseph Banks & Banksia (Proteaceae)Petrophile linearis - endemicgenus in ProteaceaeAstroloma -endemic genus inEpacridaceaeMediterranean Floristic Regions Australia - high degree of endemismCorrea (Australianfuchsia) - endemicgenus in RutaceaeMelaleuca alternifolia Callistemon citrinusMediterranean Floristic Regions Australia - high degree of endemismLarge radiation of Myrtaceae (myrtlefamily) - most genera endemicEucalyptus wandoo heath sclerophyllMediterranean Floristic Regions Australia - high degree of endemismLarge radiation of Eucalyptus(Myrtaceae)Mediterranean Floristic Regions California - chapparal (shrub/tree &

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