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HWS ASN 210 - Daoism vs. Confucianism

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Daoism vs. ConfucianismConfucian Views of Men and SocietyPowerPoint PresentationSlide 4Daoism (based on DDJ and ZZ)Daoist Criticism of ConfucianismLao-tzu’s/Laozi’s Critique of ConfucianismSlide 8Slide 9Slide 10More critiquesDenunciation of ConfuciusSlide 13Slide 14Slide 15Slide 16Slide 17Slide 18Slide 19Slide 20Avoid Bipolarizing Daoism and ConfucianismDaoist side of ConfuciusSlide 23Slide 24Slide 25Was Taoism a “School”?Slide 27Other Schools?Daoism vs. Confucianism•Confucianism–A system of thought representing “conventional values”–social-minded–represents a higher form of moralism–optimistic rationalism–Humanism: humaneness (ren) and righteousness (yi)–family ethics: filial piety (xiao), proriety (li),–ritualization of lifeConfucian Views of Men and Society•a sage ruler (sage king) is needed to keep social and political order–Which is maintained by proper hierarchy–Example of modeled society can be found in a golden age in the past.•Man is the center of this mundane world•gentlemen (ju nz i) in gov’t to help rule the state•good government brings about good society•good individuals: humane and righteous•rites and music:–sacrifice and ritual–rules and regulations•family is the base of society and state–ethics and order–Education•HumanismDaoism (based on DDJ and ZZ)•Taoism/Daoism valued speculative thought•Questioned and often times repudiated Confucian values•rejected all other “artificial devices” of civilization•mocked ritual and propriety and decried group conventions•pessimistic about society•man is not capable of keeping order and safety in society•social man is a misguided being•sought nature as refuge from man’s world•scorned government, feared progress and civilization•wary of technical skills•naturalismDaoist Criticism of Daoist Criticism of ConfucianismConfucianismConfucian Virtues and regulationsConfucian Virtues and regulationshumaneness and righteousnesshumaneness and righteousnesslike web-toes, extra-fingers, and other physical superfluitylike web-toes, extra-fingers, and other physical superfluitynot a part of human nature; their existence is of no meaningful not a part of human nature; their existence is of no meaningful valuevaluenot attributes of humanity because they were used to pursue not attributes of humanity because they were used to pursue honor and wealth, thus were the sources of greedhonor and wealth, thus were the sources of greedalong with the rites and music, caused confusions in the worldalong with the rites and music, caused confusions in the worldwhat made people “superior men”; what caused people to twist what made people “superior men”; what caused people to twist their nature and die fortheir nature and die forGood personGood personone who accepts the given characteristics and knows his/her own selfone who accepts the given characteristics and knows his/her own selfLao-tzu’s/Laozi’s Critique of Confucianism•The person of superior integrity•Does not insist upon (display) his integrity.•The person of inferior integrity•Never loses sight of his integrity;•For this reason, he lacks integrity.•The person of superior integrity takes no action•Nor has he a purpose for acting•The person of superior humaneness takes action,•But has no purpose for acting•The person of superior righteousness takes no action•And has a purpose for acting•The person of superior etiquette takes action•But others do not respond to him;•Whereupon he rolls up his sleves and coerces them•When the Way is lost, afterward comes integrity.•When integrity is lost, afterward comes humaneness.•When humaneness is lost, afterward comes righteousness.•When the righteousness is lost, afterward comes etiquette.•Etiquette is the attenuation of trustworthiness, •And the source of disorder .•Foreknowledge is but the blossomy ornament of the Way,•And the source of ignorance.(TTC/ddj, 1/38)•Let there be a small state with few people,–Where military devices find no use;•Let the people look solemnly upon death,–And banish the thought of moving elsewhere.•They may have carts and boats,–But there is no reason to ride them;•They may have armor and weapons,–But they have no reason to display them.•Let the people go back to tying knots to keep records•Let their food be savory, their clothes beautiful, their customs pleasurable, [and] their dwellings secure.•Though they may gaze across at a neighboring state,–And hear the sounds of its dogs and chickens,•The people will never travel back and forth,–Till they die of old age.(TTC/DDJ, 30/80)•To Daoists, Confucian pursuit of knowledge•interfered with the innate characteristics of things•created distinction between men and other beings•men separated themselves from the birds and the beasts•treated the birds and the beasts as their possessions•created mechanic devices to hunt (or kill) animals and nature•complicated life, provoked debates, and divided people and all creatures•life should be as simple as “the simplicity of unhewn log”•caused contention for profits and fame•did not help people to realize and appreciate the Dao, but would move people away from the DaoMore critiques•Confucian sages•the source of troubles in this world•created more harms than benefits•people do bad things in the name of humaneness and righteousness•the world would be in peace without the sage•abandon wisdom and abolish sagehood•forsake outer form and cultivate inner virtuesDenunciation of Confucius•The Zhuangzi, chapter 29, “Robber Footpad” (Daozhi 盜 盜 ). •Daozhi: “Is not this fellow Kong Qiu, the clever hypocrite from the state of Lu? Tell him for me, “You make speeches and compose phrases, recklessly citing kings Wen and Wu. You wear a cap decorated with twigs and branches and a cummerbund of dead ox hide. You are wordy and prone to exaggerate. You eat without plowing, dress without weaving. You flap your lips and wag your tongue, presumptuously fabricating right and wrong, thereby confusing the rulers of all under heaven what is fundamental. Your recklessly propound filial devotion and fraternal duty, yet try your luck with the feudal lords, the wealthy, and the honored. Your crimes are great, your•offenses enormous. Go back wehre you came from quickly! Otherwise, I’ll supplement my lunch with your liver.”


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