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Rate Pressure Product
Measures the myocardial workload RPP= HR x Systolic BP
Collateral Circulation
alternative pathways for delivering blood to a region of the body if one vessel is blocked, blood can still get to the region by the alternative route done by "andeogenesis" (creating of new blood vessels)
Why might exercise protect the heart from damage during a heart attack?
Increases protective stress protein Increases antioxidant capacity Indirectly decreases blood pressure
Why can diastolic blood pressure decrease during exercise?
Because vasodilation of vessels
Frank Starling Law
The strength of ventricular contraction increases with EDV
Exercise hyperemia
Blood flow to the muscles can increase 20x during exercise
autoregulation
the ability of a tissue to locally and automatically adjust its blood flow to match its metabolic demands
Central command
Sends signal to cardiovascular system- is regulated by peripheral feedback (exercise pressor reflex)
Fick Equation
VO2max= CO x AVDO2
Affect of bedrest and training
Bed Rest: CO decreases because SV decreases, no change in HR Trained: increases CO and AVDO2. SV increases because of higher EDV. sympathetic increases compared to parasympathetic
Effect of heart transplant
SV is stunted during exercise due to no sympathetic or parasympathetic intervention- heart cannot increase contractility
Conducting zone
(nasal cavity, pharynx, trachea, bronchial tree) Conducts air to diffusion zone. Humidies, warms and filters air
Diffusion Zone
exchange of gases between air and blood (alveolar sacs and respiratory bronchioles)
Respiratory control center
located in the medulla
Hypoxic threshold
The point where your ventilation drastically increases as a result of decreased PO2 (60-75 mmHG)
Pulmonary Ventilation
V=Vt x f amount of air into/out of lungs per minute. product of tidal volume and frequency
Draw/describe oxyhemoglobin disassociation curve
...
Central chemoreceptors
located in medulla respond to changes in PCO2 and [H+] in cerebrospinal fluid
Peripheral chemoreceptors
located in aortic and carotid bodies respond to changes in PCO2, PO2, [H+] and [K+] in blood
Why does ventilation drift upward during exercise in hot environment?
As we sweat, lose plasma volume so EDV and stroke volume decrease. Body temperature also increases. Cause an ^ in HR to keep constant CO, causes increase in ventilation
How is O2 carried in the blood?
Plasma (10%) Bound to Hb(20%) Bicarbonate (70%)

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