UNC-Chapel Hill BIOL 252 - Exam 1 Study Guide (12 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide


Nervous System

Study Guide
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Biol 252 - Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology

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BIOL 252 1st Edition Exam 1 Study Guide Lectures 1 7 The Nervous System Sensory division stimulus received Integration the brain Motor effect produced Division of the Nervous System Central nervous system o Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system o Cranial nerves spinal nerves Peripheral Nervous System Somatic protects and carries us Visceral comprises guts of the body organs help us survive Divided into sensory and motor Somatic sensory visceral sensory somatic motor visceral motor ANS Neuron Structure o Soma neurosoma cell body o Dendrites receive info o Nissl bodies rough ER make proteins o Axon hillock o No centrioles do not divide o Axon o Axoplasm inside axolemma covering o Axon collateral branch early on to instruct many cells o Schwann cells help electrical signal go faster contain myelin o Axonal transport o Retrograde transport dyneins to cell body o Anterograde transport kinesins away from cell body o Lots of synaptic knobs at terminal arborization Structural Classifications of Neurons o Unipolar sensory neurons from skin and organs to spinal cord o Bipolar olfactory cells retina inner ear o Multipolar found in brain and spinal cord o Anaxonic neuron many dendrites but no axon help in visual process Neurons form Circuits o 1 PNS sensory neurons conduct signals from receptors to CNS unipolar o 2 CNS interneurons confined to CNS multipolar o 3 PNS motor neurons conduct signals from CNS to effectors such as muscles glands multipolar Organization o Bundles of neurons nerves PNS tracts CNS o Cluster of cell bodies ganglia PNS nuclei CNS Glia supportive cells o Provide physical support environmental control guidance o CNS o Oligodendrocytes large bulbous forms myelin sheath o Ependymal cuboidal produce CSF o Microglia phagocytic destroy foreign matter o Astrocytes cover brain surface and most of neuron forms capillaries Secrete nerve growth factors Form blood brain barrier Convert glucose to lactate Regulate chemical composition o PNS o Satellite

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