UNC-Chapel Hill BIOL 252 - Final Exam Study Guide (17 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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EXAM 4


Pages:
17
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Course:
Biol 252 - Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology
Edition:
1

Unformatted text preview:

BIOL 252 1st Edition Exam 4 Study Guide Lectures 21 26 Respiratory System I Respiratory System a Alveoli i Squamous alveolar cells ii Shared basement membrane 1 Where O2 must traverse to get from air to blood iii Capillary endothelial cell b What are the factors that affect the rate of diffusion i Temperature ii Surface area greater SA greater diffusion rate iii Partial pressure 1 Substitute for concentration 2 High concentration of O2 on one side versus the other concentration gradient a Greater the difference greater diffusion rate iv Molecule size 1 Bigger harder to move v Diffusion distance vi Solubility 1 O2 versus CO2 solubility CO2 more soluble c Respiration exchange of gases at respiratory membrane d Ventilation movement of air to and from respiratory membrane II Ventilation a Only diaphragm is needed for relaxed ventilation b Inhalation inspiration contracted diaphragm c Expiration relaxed diaphragm d Other muscles there for active ventilation e Control of ventilation i VRG ventral respiratory group ii Has reverberating circuits that alternate between stimulating muscular contraction inspiration and allowing relaxation expiration iii Can receive signals that tell it to speed up down iv Inspiratory neurons have spontaneous action potentials 1 Trigger other neurons to cause integrating centers to cause muscle contraction 2 Besides stimulating muscles sends another signal to expiratory neuron that has effect of turning off inspiratory neuron 3 Called reverberating circuit a Why diaphragm contracts and then relaxes v Rate factors DRG dorsal and PRG pontine influence rate of ventilation III 1 Central chemoreceptors pH a In CNS 2 Peripheral chemoreceptors CO2 O2 3 Stretch receptors Hering Breuer reflex a Prevents over inflation of lung 4 Irritant receptors a Breathe more shallow when irritants present 5 Hypothalamus and motor cortex f Principles of ventilation i How do we breathe ii Boyle s law pressure of given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its



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