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Learning Part 1 Classical Conditioning Short Video Overview CLASSICAL CONDITIONING What is Learning Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response John B Watson Little Albert Studies What is Learning Learning a relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that results from experience How do we learn Associations two things go together Stimulus response Lightning occurs Thunder What is Learning Process of learning is called conditioning i e the process of learning associations Conditioning Strengthening Classical Conditioning L E A R N I N G T O M A K E A N I N VO LUN TA RY R E F L E X R E S P O N S E T O A S T I M U LUS O T H E R T H A N T H E O R I G I N A L N AT U R A L S T I M ULU S T H AT N O R M A L LY P R O D U CE S T H E R E F L E X Ivan Pavlov Ivan Pavlov 1849 1926 1904 Nobel Prize for research on digestion 1927 published research on conditioned reflexes classical conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Pavlov s Discovery Pavlov s Discovery Unconditioned Stimulus UCS stimulus that automatically and naturally triggers a response Unconditioned Response UCR unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus i e naturally occurring involuntary reflex Pavlov s Discovery Pavlov s Discovery Pavlov s Discovery Pavlov s Discovery Neutral Stimulus conditioning Stimulus that has no effect on the desired response prior to Conditioned Stimulus CS originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned Conditioned Response CR learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus Pavlov s Discovery Pavlov s Discovery Pavlov s Discovery Pavlov s Discovery Classical Conditioning To sum it all up UCS food elicits an UCR salivation UCS food is paired with a neutral stimulus tuning fork continuing to elicit the UCR salivation After numerous pairings the neutral stimulus becomes the CS tuning fork that now elicits a CR the UCR after conditioning salivation Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning Acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning The NS must come BEFORE the UCS The NS and UCS must come very close together in time ideally no more than 5 seconds apart The neutral stimulus must be paired with the UCS several times The NS is usually some stimulus that is distinctive or stands out from other competing stimuli Applications of Classical Conditioning John B Watson Behaviorism Viewed psychology as objective science a generally agreed upon consensus today Recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today Watson and Little Albert Short Video Applied Classical Conditioning Principles in an 11 month old baby Little Albert Loud noise UCS leads to crying UCR Paired loud noise UCS with white rats neutral stimulus After numerous pairings the white rat CS elicited crying CR Watson and Little Albert Is this Ethical Could we do this today Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning Generalization Tendency for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit similar conditioned responses Higher Order Conditioning What would happen if we paired a snapping finger with the tuning fork in our previous example Occurs when a CS is paired with another neutral stimuli causing the neutral stimuli to become a 2nd CS Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning Extinction Weakening or disappearance of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus Spontaneous Recovery The reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred Other Conditioned Responses Conditioned Taste Aversion Development of a nausea or aversive response to a particular taste because that taste was followed by a nausea reaction occurring after only one association Wait a second doesn t this violate some of the basic principles of classical conditioning CS and UCS should be paired close in time Should take several pairings Possible explanation Biological Preparedness Review The Office Short Video What is the UCS UCR CS CR Review Review Applications of Classical Conditioning Bed Wetting Treatment Bell and Pad UCS Alarm UCR Waking Up NS Full Bladder CS Full Bladder CR Waking Up Learning Part 2 Operant Conditioning Social Learning Overview Operant Conditioning Principles of Reinforcement B F Skinner short video Schedules of Reinforcement Social Learning Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcement or diminished if followed by a punisher Whats an operant A RANDOM behavior Principles of Reinforcement When will behaviors increase Behaviors that have favorable consequences will be repeated When will behaviors decrease Behaviors with unfavorable consequences Principles of Reinforcement Reinforcement Any consequence that INCREASES the likelihood of a behavior Primary vs Secondary Reinforcers Punishment behavior Any consequence that DECREASES the likelihood of a Principles of Reinforcement Reinforcement is divided into 2 types 1 Positive reinforcement Increases behavior by PRESENTING a pleasurable stimulus e g You study because you want an A 2 Negative reinforcement Increases behavior by REMOVING an aversive unpleasant stimulus e g You study to keep your parents from nagging Principles of Reinforcement Is negative reinforcement the same as punishment NO Principles of Reinforcement Remember reinforcement INCREASES behavior Punishment DECREASES behavior Principles of Reinforcement There are also 2 types of punishment 1 Positive punishment Decreases behavior by PRESENTING an aversive stimulus e g spanking 2 Negative punishment Decreases behavior by REMOVING a pleasant stimulus e g taking away TV privileges grounding So you know when you are ADDING something to the environment its either positive reinforcement or positive punishment when you are SUBTRACTING something to the environment its either Negative reinforcement or Negative punishment Effect on Behavior Procedure Increases Decreases Presentation of stimulus Positive reinforcement feed the rat Positive punishment shock the rat Removal of stimulus Negative reinforcement stop the shock Negative Punishment stop the food An important term SHAPING Rewarding successive approximations of a desired behavior B F Skinner 1904 1990 developed

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