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Exam 1 Review Sport Psyc An Professiona Developmen Uni What is sport and exercise psychology The scientific study of human behavior in sport and exercise and the practical application of that knowledge What are the three major questions asked in the field Psychological factors on sports and physical activity behavior and performance Participating in sport physical activity on psychological development health and well being What Are The Three Roles Research Teaching Consulting What Does B f p e Mean This formula was created by Lewin that states that behavior is a function of the person and his or her environment Who Is Coleman Griffin The Father of Modern Sport Psychology who conducted the first research lab Who is Norman Triplet father of social psych Study Social facilitation of bikers and tested whether bikers rode faster when in groups than alone Describe the 6 periods of Sports Psychology 1 Early Years 1895 1920 early studies ex Norman Triplett 2 Griffith Era 1921 1938 development of labs and psychological testing 3 Preparation for the Future 1939 1965 Franklin Henry establishes grad program 4 Establishment of Academic Branch 1966 1977 1st NASPSPA conference 5 Multidisciplinary Research 1978 2000 New research and establishment of specialty journals and conferences 6 Contemporary 2000 Present Identify and explain 3 ways of knowing advantages disadvantages 1 Common sense Intuition speculation easy quick not based on experience data so greatest chance of being wrong 2 Practical Experience Observations case studies holistic immediate innovative fails to explain mechanisms susceptible to bias 3 Science Systematic controlled empirical investigations of relationships among phenomena Reliable objective and unbiased reductionistic slow to evolve sometimes not practical What are the 4 steps involved in the scientific method 1 Develop the problem 2 Formulate hypotheses 3 Gather Data 4 Analyze and interpret results Personality and Sport Unit What is personality that pattern of characteristic thoughts feelings and behaviors that distinguishes one person from another and that persists over time and situations Hollander s model of personality internal psychological core internal constant ex attitudes values interests and beliefs about self typical responses middle ex shy even tempered etc role related behavior external dynamic Name The 5 Big Personalities OCEAN 1 Openness to Experience 2 Conscientiousness 3 Extraversion Introversion 4 Agreeableness 5 Neuroticism Emotionality What Is The Iceberg Profile characterization of successful athletes reflects mental health above average vigor below average tension depression anger fatigue and confusion Describe the trait approach to personality imply that traits those relatively stable attributes of a person are 1 Consistent we expect behavior thoughts emotions to be similar from one situation to the next 2 Generalizable we expect people to behave similarly across contexts Why are traits a poor predictor of behavior on their own no specific personality profile for an athlete can t assume cause and effect What does the interactionist approach to personality suggest about how personality develops Person factors e g traits and situation factors interact to determine behavior B f P E Combination of trait and situation theories Concept of STATE vs TRAIT characteristics behaviorism situation approach suggests people learn behaviors for specific situations via rewards and punishments Social Learning theory situation approach suggests people learn behaviors for certain situations via observational learning modeling Should Personality testing be used in the athlete selection process Describe Other Problems with using personality tests in sport settings Attributio eor Define Attribution Theory Interpretations or explanations individuals give for success or failure What are attributions How do they relate to our success failures Interpretations or explanations individuals give for success or failure i e Why you think you were successful or unsuccessful What is Motivation What are the two key assumptions of attribution theory Weiner 1979 1985 1 Motivation is influenced by attributions 2 There are some commonly cited reasons for success and failure What are the 3 characteristics of attributions 1 Stability stable vs unstable 2 Causality internal vs external 3 locus of control in one s control vs not What do the stability causality and control attributions mean in terms of psychological outcomes Stability stable greater expectations of outcome happening again unstable lower expectation Causality internal greater pride shame external lower pride shame Control in one s control greater motivation out of one s control less motivation What is Self Service Bias What is Learned Helplessness Making attributions that help you increase or maintain your self esteem and confidence For success internal and stable For failure external and unstable A psychological state where people have learned that failure is inevitable and out of their control Tend to attribute failure to uncontrollable stable causes stop trying Achievemen Goa eor What are the 2 assumptions of achievement goal theory People are motivated to demonstrate competence Motivation is influenced by the personal meaning one assigns to perceived success and failure What is Ego Achievement A limited number of people can be successful Success less in participant s control What is Task Mastery Achievement Possible for all participants to be successful Success more in participant s control Self Determinatio theor Competenc Motivatio eor Arousa Anxiet Performanc relationship Stres Modelin O ervationa Learnin Competitio Cooperatio

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UNC-Chapel Hill EXSS 181 - Exam 1 Review

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