UNC-Chapel Hill EXSS 181 - Final Exam Study Guide (11 pages)

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Final Exam Study Guide



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Final Exam Study Guide

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Pages:
11
Type:
Study Guide
School:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Course:
Exss 181 - SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Lecture 3
SPORT PSYCHOLOGY Lecture 3 Documents
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EXSS 181 1st Edition Final Exam Study Guide Majority of exam is from section 3 but look back over sections 1 and 2 from first 2 exams to make sure you understand broad topics Intro to Sport Sociology Sociology study of social life including all forms of social interaction and relationships Sport sociology subdiscipline of sociology that studies sports as parts of social and cultural life Differences between Sport Sociology and Sport Psychology Sociologyo How outside environment affects individuals and groups o group experiences o formation of social arrangements that enable control and give life meaning o reality outside and around individuals o actions and relationships in terms of social conditions and cultural contexts in which ppl live their lives Sport Psychologyo Look at individual and work way out o Individual experiences o Interpersonal dynamic and social influence from individual perspective o Attributes or processes inside individuals o Motivation perception cognition attitudes personality etc Both care about individual outcomes Why study Sport Sociology o Sports are given special meaning in people s lives and are tied to imp Ideas and beliefs in many cultures ideologies o Ideology conscious and unconscious ways we come to know about our prescribe meaning to things o Sports are connected to major spheres of social life like family education media and politics Ex sports and politics tied through things like title 9 steroid use derogatory franchise names o Sports tied to education a lot in US with college athletes and younger school athletes can be ticket to better life with scholarships and professionals Some key questions in sport sociology o Why have sports in certain societies been created organized certain ways o How do sports and sport participation affect our ideas about things like our bodies masculinity social class race etc o How are the meaning purpose and org of sports connected with the culture org and resources in societies o How can ppl use sport sociology to understand and participate in society as agents of progressive change Social constructions aspects of the social world that are created by people as they interact with one another under the social political and economic conditions that exist in their society Sport Socialization Socialization a continuous process whereby indiv learn skills behaviors attitudes and values that cause or enable them to function in their group or culture o Developmental experience that continues over life span how learn the rules of the game in society and how people are judged on such Ex we ve been socialized to not talk over professors in classroom Categories of sport socialization o Into How do individuals become interested and involved in sport and physical activity o Through What do ppl learn or gain from participation in sport Like attributes values behaviors and skills o Out of Why do people discontinue or withdraw from sport Ex being cut from the team choose to focus on other activities Socializing agents are indiv who personally interact with the role learner like parents coaches peers teachers and extended family members Socializing agencies are institutions or larger organizations in culture like the media school political climate and sports organizations Role learner characteristics can be ascribed or achieved A role learner is the participant o Ascribed ones include gender race class religion culture and geographical area o Achieved ones include skills personality confidence leadership skills and motivation The Socialization Process Marten s model of sport socialization o Socializing agencies socializing agents and role learner characteristics work through o social learning processes socialization mechanisms modeling reinforcement and peer comparison o to teach inculcate bring into group and transmit culture o This process breaks down into skills motor social and verbal knowledge language health leisure and dispositions personality attitudes motives that create result in a socially competent individual Gender race and ethnicity can be role learner characteristics in this model Role of parents in sport socialization was studied in 1993 Brustad study o Gave questionnaires that measured several variables to a group of 81 4th graders and their parents o Hypothesized that gender parent enjoyment parent fitness parent importance would all influence parent encouragement and thus impact the child s attraction to physical activity o Results showed that child gender and parent enjoyment influence parental encouragement and that impacts the child s attraction to physical activity o Concluded that social agents and role learner attributes are related to socialization outcomes 2009 Dorsch study asked if parents are socialized through their children s sport participation Concluded that parents are indeed socialized by child s sport participation as seen in their behavior cognition affect and relationships 5 core principles of coaching behavior and its relation to athletes self esteem motivation etc o winning max effort and improvement o liberal use of contingent positive reinforcement o est norms that foster athletes mutual obligations to help and support each other o involve athletes in decisions about team rules and compliance o self monitor your behavior as a coach and get feedback Affiliation is a major motive in youth peer relationships peer acceptance status popularity friendships and social support Most kids play sports for fun to do something that they re good at get exercise and become fit improve skills to compete or to be with friends Kids with low perceived competence focus on outcome goals less self determined motivation and more stress are more likely to discontinue a sport Sport specific dropouts withdraw from one sport to enter another sport while sport general dropouts withdraw from sport participation altogether Some positive dimensions of peer relationships in sports are self esteem enhancement supportiveness loyalty intimacy things in common companionship conflict resolution and pleasant play Some negative dimensions are conflict betrayal inaccessibility and unattractive personal qualities Coaches should foster cooperation over competition create task oriented motivation enhance peer relationships and use small group activities drills State anxiety in kids isn t significantly higher during sports competitions than it is in other childhood evaluative activities Kids at risk for high competition state


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