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CCJ 4663 Review Sheet Exam 3 Chapter 8 Femlale Offenders and Their Crimes Gender differences in the proportion of arrests Proportion of violent crime cases is greater for males than females Proportion of property crime cases is greater for female than male The proportion is closing but men are arrested more than women Pathway of Drug use for women many women were introduced to illegal substances at an early age Introduction came courtesy of family members or friends Others began their drug use in an effort to cope with the traumas of early childhood abuse and violence For some drugs was a way to bring excitement to a life many described as depressed or boring 2010 Fair Sentencing Act Pres Obama signed the Act which reduce the disparity between crack and powder cocaine sentences to a ratio of 18 to 1 Sentencing disparity between powder crack cocaine Offenders will receive a 5 year mandatory minimum sentencing for possessing 28 grams of crack and 10 year sentence for possessing more than 280 grams of crack cocaine 280 grams of crack 5000 grams of powder Risk factors for women in prostitution most women are arrested 90 of women are robbed and rapped by their customers Legalization of prostitution Netherlands Sweden In the Netherlands Acts of prostitution had been legalized since the 20th century Brothels were finally legalized in 2000 they were also tested It became part of their tax In Sweden the purchasing of sex from women is a criminal act Criminalizing the John they see the women as victims and they see the men as a perpetrator How did the shift to incarceration from community supervision affect women Incarceration of Women for drug related offenses increased 433 for males 283 Drug convicted women make Up 72 of the incarcerated population at the federal level Girls and Gangs Liberation Hypothesis vs Social Injury hypothesis Initiation process for girls Girls make up a small number of gang members Liberation Hypothesis they feel free Social Injury hypothesis higher risk of victimization Initiation process Jumped in Walking the line Physical violent assaulted by the gang members Or have sex with multiple gang members Girls who jumped in the gang had more respect than the ones that sexed in the gang Girl gang members who are independent of a male gang vs those who are connected to a male gang Independent girl gangs they engage in a lot of drug dealing and properties crime They took precaution when selling drugs have a gun walk with a group They still try to have connection with a group f male gang in the area Exiting the gang lifestyle they leave because of pregnant or want to get a job or education or serving time in a detention or jumped out to be physically attacked Anti Drug Abuse Act since the 1980s and the passage of the anti drug abuse act the incarceration rates for both men and women have skyrocketed Reading 19 Locked Up Means Locked Out Felony Drug Provision of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 Provides that persons convicted of state or federal felony drug offense for using or selling drugs are subject to a lifetime ban on receiving cash assistance and food stamps Democratization of Drug Use The introduction of cocaine freebase and crystallized forms crack lowered economic barriers posed by the powdered version of the drug thereby democratizing its use The accessibility and a lot of people started using crack Move to Criminalize rather than Medicalize has been particularly damaging to women who are serving times more likely to enter prison with histories of untreated post traumatic stress sexual abuse or assault and depression Just Desert Model The punishment and the seriousness of the crime should be the same Welfare Reform Act 1996 How are women affected by the lifetime bans on public assistance they are unable to provide for their children and they have few to little job opportunities because of their record TANF The welfare reform act calls for lifetime ban on benefits such as Temporary Assistance for Needy Families TANF and food stamps to offenders convicted in the state or federal courts for felony drug offense Chapter 10 The Incarceration of Women Historical trends in women s incarceration Women were confined separate quarters in men s prisons Males inmate were bringing food to the female inmates there were a high number of pregnancy Elizabeth Fry Her work became the inspiration for the women s prison movement in the U S Felt like it was responsibility of women in the community to help incarcerated women Changes made during female prison reform Women should be under the authority of women the staff should be female women should be housed in their own institution Indiana Women s Prison First standalone prison still here today it was in a residential area Focused on certain female pregnant mental ill high profile female First maximum prison for women Treatment orientation and philosophy has been criticized by feminist scholars as examples of patriarchy Reformatory vs Custodial Institutions Types of Correctional Facilities for Women Reformatories Prison was designed with the intent to rehabilitate female offenders Women were convicted of public order offenses Women received an indeterminate sentence Effective in responding to women prisoners being abused Types of Correctional Facilities for Women Custodial Institutions Similar in design and purpose of male institutions Women were warehoused little treatment or programming occurred Women were convicted of felony and property related crimes 1 3 of women were convicted of violent crimes This institution type more popular in the southern states Poor Prison conditions MCI Framington MA describe this facility it allowed incarcerated woman to see their babies daily there were also a hospitals opened 1877 All female staff Inmate nursery On site Hospital Programing activities No fences the women on low security The women would not escape Also a prison farm they produce enough crops for the entire state MIC Framington Today Conditions have changed the prison is more like modern day institution The farm is no longer exists The nursery and the farm no longer exist The mission of the facility has changed policies reinforce a get tough approach to crime philosophy Explanations for high female incarceration rates Because of mandatory time minimum sentence and the war on drugs Profiles of Women in the CJ System Most women are incarcerated for nonviolent offenses Racial Ethnic Composition of Incarceration Rates Black and Hispanics

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