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CCJ 4663 Review Sheet Exam 1 Chapter 1 4 Exam 1 01 31 14 What is Gender Sex vs Gender Sex Talks about what makes us male or female or what it means to be male or female The category an infant is assigned to at birth based upon the appearance of the genitalia Refers to biological apparatus Ex Expectations associated with sex gender differentiate within crime Gender What it means to be feminine or masculine in a particular society For Example mother not sure the gender of her baby because she choose not know The artificial division of the world into people or things that are masculine or for men and occupations In this stage context matters We have habits of categorizing Gender Binary Based on how we society the world feminine or for women Consider the following phrases opposite sexes genders means 1 sex normal other sex not normal different sexes genders More than 1 not either or once baby is here gender is developed and peers such as family and friend help babies know there gender Social cultural and psychological traits linked to males and females through a particular context The woman in the criminal justice system has been limited as women traditionally shut out of many of these male dominated What are the implications of the two phrases as they relate to the concept gender binary One have a higher value ranking has opposite For example Man being a president is a great position for them bc they can make rational decision when need to do so Americans have the assumption that women are too emotional to be the president of United States people believe that women will be unable to make rational decisions Based the example this is example of devalue women Gender Display Based on how we present ourselves How we present our self or how we walk round and indicate male or female For example tattoos dress piercing hair clothing make up male wearing makeup and much more Presentation of self as a certain kind of gendered person through dress cosmetics adornments and permanent and reversible body markers Gendered Process behavior behavior The social practices of learning being taught and picking up cues for gender appropriate or non gender appropriate For example according to the twin video shown in class what was the most appropriate behavior and not appropriate Appropriate behavior Jert room room blue like boy figure toys like trucks toy soldiers Inappropriate behavior Adams room room pink girl toys nails wish he could be a girl pink barbie There are ways we learn who we are through reinforcement Social Structure For example Organization of society that shapes social behavior social attitudes Emphasizes the collective and social basis for behavior classroom roles as a student know the rules or expectation work school Social structures works on two levels Micro and macro Emphasis on entire group Emphasizes the collective and social basis for behavior Emphasis that Gender is fluid and dynamic Pluralizing Gender Masculinities Femininities Ideal types of Gender Gender and Power Connell 1980 Connell brought about 2 types of Masculinity Hegemonic Masculinity Based on a culture ideal Masculine figure tough appearance or violence For example people The Rock WWE chuck norris Emphasized Femininity Woman try to meet needs and desires for that men Known as a display of social ability as opposed to being competent Focus on their male partner being taking care of then themselves Overview Women Crime The blurring of lines research Belknap s research The blurring of lines based on 3 most important things ex Joanne Belknap s research Offenders Victims Criminal Justice professionals victims of a crime Belknap categorize the pathway to delinquency as a blurred boundaries as the categories of victims and offenders are not separate nor distant offenders He explains that girls move b w the category throughout their lives as there victimization does not stop once they become In addition to the victimization women experience as a result for survival strategies may continue to be victimized through the system due to failure to provide programs for women and girls Relationship between delinquency and victimization For female research indicates that a history of abuse leads a propensity to engage in certain types of delinquency offending running away school failure rather than acts of violence victimization leads to engaging in criminal offenses example a teenage girl being physically or sexually abused at home she run away becomes involve in prostitution The exclusion of studies on women and girls When the studies only focus on men and leave women and girls out of the study example Hearsay theory of social control refer to young delinquency only explain why boys commit certain crimes Relationship between incarceration victimization Women early on set of victimization women in her childhood victim women will end up going to jail due to pain and hurt this is the victim women way of coping with physical or sexual abuse Focus of criminological theories historically the history of criminological theories only focus mainly on men which didn t include women or girls Women and girls as both victims and offenders were excluded from studies If they were included it was in either stereotypical or sexist ways Criminological theories focuses on men Add gender stir approach to criminological theory result of taking a criminological theory that only fit for man try to use it to make sense for woman vice versa Applying male theories to understand female behavior and experiences the facts have to account for the factors the research can t be missing pieces it have to make senses example a life course theory only explain why men are deter from crime due to turning points throughout their life but one may argue that this can be applied to women as well this not true based on the research women who are addittive to alcohol as they get married continue to have run ends with the law the only thing that can deter the women if their marriage is on a strong foundation Official Data Sources UCR Uniform Crime Reports Represents crimes known to the police published by the FBI Good for examining trends over time crime statistic represent 95 of the population Part One index crimes most serious offense include eight different offenses aggravated assault forcible rape murder robbery arson burglary larceny theft and motor vehicle theft Part two Index crimes less serious offense Includes demographic data ex Vandalism fraud embezzlement

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