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CCJ 4663Review Sheet Exam 1Chapter 14Exam 1 ( 013114)What is Gender?Sex vs. Gender : Sex● Talks about what makes us male or female or what it means to be male or female● The category an infant is assigned to at birth based upon the appearance of the genitalia.● Refers to biological apparatus● Ex: Expectations associated with sex gender differentiate within crime. Gender● What it means to be feminine or masculine in a particular society● ( once baby is here gender is developed and peers such as family and friend help babies know there gender)● Social, cultural and psychological traits linked to males and females through a particular context● The woman in the criminal justice system has been limited as women traditionally shut out of many of these male dominatedoccupations.● In this stage context matters● We have habits of categorizing● For Example: ( mother not sure the gender of her baby because she choose not know)Gender Binary● Based on how we( society) the world● The artificial division of the world into people or things that are "masculine" or "for men" and● "feminine" or "for women"● Consider the following phrases:● "opposite sexes/genders○ means 1 sex normal other sex not normal● "different sexes/genders”○ More than 1( not either or)● What are the implications of the two phrases as they relate to the concept gender binary?○ One have a higher value ranking has opposite○ For example■ Man being a president is a great position for them bc they can make rational decision when need to do so.Americans have the assumption that women are too emotional to be the president of United States ,people believe that women will be unable to make rational decisions.● Based the example this is example of devalue women.Gender Display● Based on how we present ourselves● How we present our self or how we walk round and indicate male or female● For example: tattoos, dress, piercing, hair, clothing, make up,(male wearing makeup) and much more● Presentation of self as a certain kind of gendered person through dress, cosmetics, adornments, and permanent andreversible body markersGendered Process● The social practices of learning, being taught and picking up cues for gender appropriate or nongender appropriatebehavior● For example according to the twin video shown in class what was the most appropriate behavior and not appropriatebehavior.● Appropriate behavior:Jert room ( room blue, like boy figure toys like trucks, toy soldiers)● Inappropriate behavior:Adams room( room pink, girl toys, nails, wish he could be a girl, pink barbie)● There are ways we learn who we are through reinforcement Social Structure● Organization of society that shapes social behavior & social attitudes● Emphasizes the collective and social basis for behaviorFor example● classroom roles as a student, know the rules or expectation ( work, school,)● Social structures works on two levels○ Micro and macro○ Emphasis on entire group● Emphasizes the collective and social basis for behaviorPluralizing Gender• Emphasis that :Gender is fluid and dynamic• Masculinities• FemininitiesIdeal types of GenderGender and Power (Connell 1980)Connell brought about 2 types of MasculinityHegemonic Masculinity• Based on a culture ideal• Masculine figure, tough appearance, or violence• For example people(The Rock WWE, chuck norris,)Emphasized Femininity• Woman try to meet needs and desires for that men• Known as a display of social ability as opposed to being competent• Focus on their male partner being taking care of then themselvesOverview Women & CrimeThe blurring of lines research (Belknap’s research)● The blurring of lines based on 3 most important things (ex: Joanne Belknap’s research)○ Offenders○ Victims○ Criminal Justice professionals( victims of a crime● Belknap categorize the pathway to delinquency as a blurred boundaries as the categories of victims and offenders are notseparate nor distant● He explains that girls move b/w, the category throughout their lives as there victimization does not stop once they becomeoffenders● In addition to the victimization women experience as a result for survival strategies may continue to be victimized throughthe system due to failure to provide programs for women and girlsRelationship between delinquency and victimization● For female research indicates that a history of abuse leads a propensity to engage in certain types of delinquency offending○ running away, school failure, rather than acts of violence● victimization leads to engaging in criminal offenses● example a teenage girl being physically or sexually abused at home she run away becomes involve in prostitutionThe exclusion of studies on women and girls● When the studies only focus on men and leave women and girls out of the study● example Hearsay theory of social control○ refer to young delinquency only explain why boys commit certain crimesRelationship between incarceration & victimization (Women)● early on set of victimization (women) in her childhood● victim( women) will end up going to jail due to pain and hurt● this is the victim( women) way of coping with physical or sexual abuse.Focus of criminological theories historically● the history of criminological theories only focus mainly on men which didn’t include women or girls● Women and girls as both victims and offenders were excluded from studies● If they were included it was in either stereotypical or sexist ways● Criminological theories focuses on menAdd gender & stir approach to criminological theory● result of taking a criminological theory that only fit for man try to use it to make sense for woman vice versa. (Applying maletheories to understand female behavior and experiences)● the facts have to account for the factors, the research can’t be missing pieces it have to make senses.● example a life course theory only explain why men are deter from crime due to turning points throughout their life but onemay argue that this can be applied to women as well this not true based on the research women who are addittive to alcoholas they get married continue to have run ends with the law the only thing that can deter the women if their marriage is on astrong foundation.Official Data SourcesUCR Uniform Crime Reports● Represents crimes known to the police,● published by the FBI●

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