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CCJ4663-Exam 3Chapter 8 Female Offenders and Their CrimesGender differences in the proportion of arrestsProportion of Violent Crime Cases is greater for males than femalesProportion of Property Crime Cases is greater for females than malesThe gap in the proportion is closing, but men are arrested more than women (7.8 vs. 2.8 million)The narrowest gap between male and female offending can be found in property crimesLarceny-theftTypes of Crimes females and males are arrested forMuch like their male counterparts, females are involved in property offenses, simple assault, robbery, murderWomen make up majority of arrests of prostitutionPathway of Drug use for womenHistorically, women’s addiction was constructed as the product of individual women’s inability to cope with changing versions of normative femininityWomen have similar pathways of depression, abuse, and social and economic pressures that lead them toward substance use and abuse as a method of coping with their livesIntroduced to drugs at early ageFrom friends and familyOther women began using drugs to cope with childhood abuse and violence or to bring excitement into their livesAnti-Drug Abuse Act1986- Anti-Drug Abuse Act passed by Pres. ReaganSince the Act has been passed, men and women incarceration rates have skyrocketedMade because of the crack-cocaine epidemicAdvanced the War on Drugs2010 Fair Sentencing ActPres. ObamaReduced sentencing disparity between powder & crack cocaine18 to 1 sentencing ratio5 yr mandatory minimum prison sentence for:Possession of 28 grams of crackPossession of 500 grams of powder cocaine10 yr mandatory minimum prison sentence for:Possession of 280 grams of crack cocainePossession of 5,000 grams of powder cocaineThere has been progress at the federal levelSentencing disparity between powder & crack cocaineFair Sentencing Act100 to 1 sentencing ratioOffenders who possessed 5 grams of crackOffenders who possessed 500 grams of powder cocaineReceived a 5 yr mandatory minimum sentenceSentencing disparities between powder and crack cocaine created a system whereby drug users were treated the same as mid-level dealersCrack is more associated with violent crime, used in larger quantities, more addictive than powder cocaineThe media perpetuated this ideaHowever, they are pharmalogically the sameChanges in mandatory minimum structure decreased racial disparitiesRisk factors for women in prostitutionStreet-level sex workMost visible venueMost dangerous form of sex workThe venue where most sex workers are arrestedWomen who work on the streets higher risk for violence and victimizationWomen may trade sex acts for drugs, food, clothing and shelter70% women in prostitution have issues with drug addictionInvolves a variety of individual, contextual, environmental factorsAbandonment, abuse, poverty, early childhood sexual victimizationAbuse most commonLegalization of prostitution (Netherlands & Sweden)In Nevada,Legal prostitution is limited to counties w/ a population under 400,000Reno and Las Vegas are excluded from this limitationSince 1986 women who work in brothels must be tested weeklyRegulations that occur in brothelsIn the Netherlands,Act of prostitution had been legal since the 20th centuryBrothels were finally legalized in 2000Created a new way to govern the sex tradeThe goals of decriminalization allowed for the government to improve the lives of women in prostitution by creating safe working conditions, to create a system of monitoring the sex trade, and to regulate illegal activities that might be associated with selling of sexuality, such as street crimes associated with prostitution, the exploitation of juveniles, or the trafficking of women into the sex industryLeading destination for pedophiles and child pornography under the belief that the promotion of legalize prostitution has created opportunities for illegal prostitution in these regionsIn Sweden,The purchasing of sex from women is a criminal actThe belief is that by criminalizing the male demand for sex, it may significantly decrease the supply of women who engage in these actsCriminalizing the “John”Taking a stand against a practice they feel constitutes and act of violence against womenHow did the shift to incarceration from community supervision affect women?Shift from community corrections to incarceration hurt womenThe introduction of mandatory minimum sentencing represented a major change in the processing of drug offendersThe shift led to increases in incarceration rates for drug offensesThe presence of crack shifted the culture of street economy, particularly for women involved in acts of prostitutionThe highly addictive nature of crack led more women to the streets in an effort to find a way to get their next highAt the same time, the flood of women in search of sex work created an economy whereby the value of sexual services significantly decreasedThe overall rates of crimes other than drug-related cases have changed littleThe War on Drugs had unintended consequences on womenCorrectional policiesBefore: more therapeuticAfter: more punitiveThis is why we see the increase in women in crimeGirls and Gangs- Liberation Hypothesis vs. Social Injury hypothesisLiberation hypothesis:Influenced by the emancipation/liberation theories of the 1970’sSuggests that the increase of female participation in gangs is related to an increase in opportunities to participate in other traditionally male domains of crimeGirls may experience autonomy and feelings of empowerment as a result of their gang activitiesSocial injury hypothesis:Girls in gangs experience higher levels of risk, danger, and injury compared to malesInitiation process for girlsJumped In/ Walking the LineThe girls subjected to assault by their fellow gang membersSexed In /Pulling a trainHaving sex with multiple individuals, often malesContinued to receive victimizationHowever, not all of these initiation rites came with a high degree of status within the gang, as those girls who were sexed in experienced lower levels of respect from gang membersGirl gang members who are independent of a male gang vs. those who are connected to a male gangFor some, gang membership is a family affairAffiliate at early ageOthers join a gang in search of a new familyGirls independent of male gang:Tend to experience high levels of violence as a result of selling drugs and interactions with other street girlsAware of the potential risk they faceTake precautionary measures to enhance safetyWeapon,

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