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What is gender Sex vs Gender o Gender o Sex the genitalia organization Gender display Gendered process What it means to be feminine or masculine in a particular society Social cultural and psychological traits linked to males and females through a particular context The category you are assigned at birth based upon the appearance of Refers to biological apparatus Chromosomal chemical or anatomical o Presentation of yourself as a certain gender through dress cosmetics adornments and permanent and reversible body markers o Social practices of learning being taught and picking up cues for gender appropriate or non gender appropriate behavior Hegemonic masculinity o Gender practice that guarantees the dominant social position of men and the subordinate social position of women o It explains how and why men maintain dominant social roles over women and other gender identities which are perceived as feminine in a given society Gender Binary o Division of the world into things that are masculine or for men and things that are feminine or for women o Ex Blue being associated with boys and pink with girls Pluralizing gender o Gender is fluid and dynamic concept Masculinities Femininities o Ideal types of gender Hegemonic masculinity Emphasized femininity Social structure Emphasized femininity o Organization of society that shapes social behavior and social attitudes o The idea that woman must conform to the needs and desires of men It is the female compliance of gender inequality o This idea of Emphasized Femininity was proposed by Connell Overview of women crime The blurring of lines research Belknap s research o Offenders o Victims o Criminal justice professionals o Ex Being a victim and murdering your husband you are a victim and offender The exclusion of studies on women and girls o Women and girls as both victims and offenders were excluded from studies o If they were included it was in either stereotypical or sexist ways Examples of research questions about female offender o How is the female offender different from the male offender o How should the CJ system respond to female offenders Extent of female offending o Overall levels of crime for women are increasing o Effects of population size in determining proportion of male and female o Men make up majority of all offending type except for embezzlement and involvement prostitution o Policy changes are to blame for much of the increase in female crime Both just as likely to commit violent crime Some show no change Some crimes that were dealt with in informal basis are now considered simple assault New category of violent crime despite the fact that little change in behavior has occurred o Gender gap between men and women is narrowing Examples of research questions about female victims o How do women experience victimization o How does the CJ system respond to women who have been victims of a crime Examples of research questions about the female workers in the CJ system o How does gender affect the way in which women work within police departments correctional agencies and legal system o What are some issues women face in these occupations Women and Work in the Criminal Justice System o Social movements in the 60s and 70s brought more access to opportunities in the CJ system o Still face challenges Relationship between delinquency victimization o Feminist pathway approach provides most comprehensive explanation for understanding this link Add gender stir approach to criminological theory o Applying male theories to understand female behavior and experiences o Men are treated as the norm women are anomalies Official data sources UCR Uniform crime reports most accurate assessment of crime o What type of data is collected Demographic data Age Gender Race Ethnicity Location state Region metropolitan suburban rural o How often is data collected Law enforcement agencies submit data on a monthly basis and the data is compiled into annual files o Types of crimes Part one offenses index crimes Represents crimes known reported to the police FBI NCVS Victimization data largest victimization study in the US o What type of data is collected Victims race ethnicity etc Situational factors Perceptions of offenders If it was reported to police and reasons o How often is data collected Every six months semi annual o Types of crimes Detailed information on 6 types of crime Limitations of UCR o The hierarchy rule incomplete o Issues with police recording crimes certain types of crime o Issues with crimes being reported Limitations of victimizations data o Limited focus Limited number of crimes Little to no info on victims under 12 o Problems with administering interviews surveying Wouldn t interview under 12 yrs old Interview in a household o Sampling and estimate problems Feminist criminology Sexism o Oppressive attitudes and behaviors directed at either sex o The discrimination or prejudice based on gender Definition of feminism o The struggle to end sexist oppression o Part of a larger movement to end domination in all its forms Aim of feminism is NOT to benefit a specific group of women Feminism does not privilege women over men Research on women s victimization o Majority of victims in certain violent crimes particularly intimate partner violence and sexual assault o Most likely victimized by someone they know o Often do not report o Charges not always filed o Estimated 5 million women victimized by violent crime 3 million by someone they know in a year Victimology or contributed to their victimization Liberal feminist theory of crime o The study of the ways in which the behavior of crime victims may have led to o Women s access to equality in education employment or the public world is blocked by customary and legal constraints Second wave of feminism relationship to women and crime research o Focused on sexuality legal inequalities and reproductive rights o Move by feminists to advocate research and laws that describe a woman s o Challenged the masculine nature of theories of crime deviance and social legal position control o Led to discussion about the nature of female offender victims and CJ system Masculinization of female offenders bad girls gangsta girls violent girls mean girls o Masculinization theory Idea that contemporary theories of violence need not attend gender but can simply add women and stir Same forces that lead to men engaging in violence will also produce violence in women FBI data shows increases in girls arrest for violent

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