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FSU PUP 3002 - Midterm #1

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Intro to Public PolicyMidterm #1Study Guide – Includes the notes from the text as well as lectures.All information is taken from Kraft, Michael E., and Scott R. Furlong.Public Policy: Politics,Analysis, and Alternatives. Fourth ed. Los Angeles: SAGE Publications, 2013. Print and classlectures.ConceptsAll concepts are highlighted throughout- Public Policy: - Deontological Ethics:- Teleological Ethics:- Efficiency:- Market Failure:- Monopoly:- Externality:- Information Asymmetry: - Collective Action Problems:- Trends in Government Growth:- Separation of Powers:o Legislative Branch:o Judicial Branch:o Executive Branch:- Federalism:- The Role of the Public: - Government Consolidation:- Polycentricity:- Common-Pool Resource:- Open Access:- Common Property:- Special Interest Groups:o Role of the public in interest groups:- Group Theory:- Elite Theory:- Institutional Theory:- Rational Choice Theory:- Stages in the Policy Process Model:- Policy Analysis and Types of Policy Analysis:- Steps in Policy Analysis:- Problem Analysis:- Constructing Alternativeso Policy Instruments- Independent/Dependent Variable- Correlation/Causation- Output/Outcome- Evaluation Criteria- Cost-benefit AnalysisWhat is public policy?Public Policy: what public officials within government, and by extension the citizens they represent, choose to do or not to do about public problems. Public problems refer to conditions the public widely perceives to be unacceptable and that therefore require intervention. What Is Government and Who Does It Consist Of?Government: the institutions and political processes through which public policy choices are made. - The governments institutions include:o Congresso The President o Various agencies of the executive brancho Federal court system In the Federal System the national government shares authority with the states and local governments. What is Politics?Politics: (the reason why public policy is so riddled with conflicts and why it can be so difficult to analyze) concerns the exercise of power in society or in specific decisions over public policy. It has several different meanings:- It is used to refer to the processes through which public policies are formulated and adopted. - Politics can also be thought of as how conflicts in society are expressed and resolved in favor of one set of interests or social values. - The issue positions that different groups of people adopt and the actions they take to promote their values. Conservatives vs. LiberalsConservatives want: Liberals want:- Want smaller government- Argue for less government intrusion into the economy and decision making within business and industry, but they often favor a strong government role to achieve certain social goals (such as reducing crime or banning abortions).- Want larger government- Rally against government threats to civil liberties and individual rights but are among the first to call for government regulation of business activity to protect consumers and workers, or to control air and water pollution. “Red states” are Republican while “Blue states” are Democratic.Why Do We Have Public Policies?People are rationally self-interested – they do things in their best interest. If there are no rules and no beliefs people may behave badly.Reasons why we have public policies: - The constitution states…o “We the people of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure The Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain…” We have public policies to:- Establish Justice- Insure domestic Tranquility- Provide for the Common Defense - Promote the general Welfare - Secure the Blessings of Liberty Political culture: refers to widely held values, beliefs, and attitudes, such as trust and confidence in government and political process. Also includes commitment to individualism, property rights,freedom, pragmatism, or practicality, equality, and similar values (some of which are distinctly American). The state of the economy has a major impact on the policies governments adopt and implement.What are Deontological and Teleological Ethics?Deontological Ethics: (duties) we have a duty to do something, those are referred to as “moral imperatives”. - Concerned with process, not outcomes. - The government should implement a certain policy not because of the outcome but because it’s “the right thing to do”.o Example: Legalizing gay marriage in order to provide a gay guy the same rights as a straight guy (morally correct) even though it may be extremely expensive (outcome). o Example: Mayor Bloomberg’s soda law – you do not care about what soda does to your body, you care about how it is inflicting on your rights to freedom. Therefore you have deontological ethics. o Example: if you are prolife you are concerned about the fetus dying during abortion not the fact that increasing abortion rates decrease crime rates. - Types of deontological ethics: o Individual libertyo Communitarianism - Conservatives have deontological ethics because they have strict values and in deontological ethics, values change very slowly. Teleological Ethics: concerned about the outcomes and effects of the policy. - We care about the effects the policy will have on the world – ignores freedom of choice. - Relies on effectiveness – does the policy meet the goal it set out to meet?- Can be implicated quickly. - Efficiency: do the benefits of the policy exceed the costs?o *Benefits relative to costs – net benefits*- Equity – how are the costs distributed within society?- Efficiency: refers to what a policy or policy proposal costs in relation to its expected benefits to society. It also sometimes described as a desire to realize the greatest possible benefit out of the dollars that government spends. Considering a policy proposal’s economic feasibility means asking whether it is “affordable” or will be considered a good use of public funds in an era when all programs compete for such funds.Market Failure – when do markets fail and when should the governmentintervene?Are markets equitable (do the costs equal the outcomes?) = No, the fact that if you can pay the price you can have the good drives efficiency.Why should the government intervene?- Political Reasons: the public and policymakers may decide that government should intervene to solve a problem for


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