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PUP3002: Intro to Public Policy1/10• Introductiono Policy: a standing decision characterized by behavioral consistency and repetitiveness on the part of both those who make it and those who abide by it.o Rules (or lack thereof): the consistent behavior to be executed in a given situation.o Authority: the official or organization responsible for the enforcement of rules.o Subject: the person or group that may be subject to the rules.o Objects: the items or resources subject to the rules.o Policy outputs: the procedureo Policy Outcomes: the resultso Public Policy: A course of government action (or inaction) in response to public problems.o Public Problems: something that could be perceived as unacceptable, affecting a large group, Public belief that government intervention is necessary• Why does the government get involved?o Political Reasonso Moral/Ethical Reasonso Market Failures Monopolies Externalities Information failure Insufficient public good provision• Public Goodso Based on rivalry and excludabilityo RE: Private Goodso RNE: Common Pool Resources (public lake, fishable, tragedy of the commons)o NRE: Club goods/toll goods (cable television)o NRNE: Pure Public goods (almost nothing, but sort of like national defense)• The Roles of Government (Adam Smith)o National Defenseo Law and Ordero Certain Public Goods (infrastructure, basic education)• What Policy should be chosen?o Distributive Rights and legal protectionso Redistributive Taking from some and giving to otherso Regulatory Lawso Competitive Regulation FDAo Protective Regulation EPA, Clean air and water actso Constituent* delegation of power or creation of agencieso Position* No laws and regulation, just a position. “This is our official stance on issue x”• Effectivenesso Does it solve the problem?o Does it prevent the problem?o Causal Link Does it tackle the cause instead of just treating it?o Spuriousness Is our idea of the cause correct?• Efficiencyo How much does it cost?o How much effort is needed?o Cost relative to benefits Coral snakes are docile but very venomous. So, there is no antivenin because no one is ever bitten.• Equityo Who benefits?o Who is burdened and by how much?o Externalitieso Unexpected Consequences• Feasibilityo Could it be approved?o Will voters punish or reward it?o Can it be done?o Constraints on technology, authority, and resources• Two Solutionso A negotiated package of spending cuts and tax hikes, paired with an increase in the debt limito The trillion dollar coino Which one works better? Effective, Feasible, Equitable, and Efficient?• GDP: Consumption+Investment+Government Spending+(eXports-Imports)o Homework Chapter 2 of the book1/15• Overviewo Constitution Powers specifically given to federal government Limits on government Separation of powers Branches of Government• Executive: not powerful enough to make laws by themselves• Legislative: bicameral, one on population, one equal. They make laws and control the tax systemo Bills and budget both pass in the Houseo Senate confirmationo Oversight of agencieso Declares war We don’t declare wars—that would be too complicated with the UNo Ratifies treatieso Deals with impeachment• Judicial: The court appointed by Exec and checked by Congress to determine the constitutionality of laws and policyo Mediates disputes between stateso Federal court system The first people to hear constitutional caseso Stare Decisis Precedent, “let the decision stand”o Judicial Activism• Federal Bureaucracyo Exec. Office of the President OMB, Council of Economic Advisors, etc.o Cabinets State, Defense, etc.o Independent Executive Agencies CIA, NASA, etc.o Independent Regulatory Commissions SEC, FTC, etc.o Government Owned Corporations Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac, FDIC• Amendmentso 9th amendment: don’t use other amendments to take rights from peopleo 10th amendment: anything that we didn’t cover goes to the states or to the peopleo The Federal Government Interstate Commerce Clause used to control drugs and whatnot Highway funds come from their agreement to raise drinking age to 21o Amendmentso State Government Governor• Bicameral Legislature (except Nevada)o Senateo House of Representativeso Counties (or equivalent)o Local Government• Balanced Budget Amendments Ballot Initiative and Referendum• Initiatives propose amendments and add things• Referendum is to remove laws Three ways to change the constitution• 60% of each house• Revision Commission: do we need to change this?• Popular: if 8% in ½ the districts think this is a good idea, we’ll put it on the ballot Limiting the Chaos• As of 2006, 60% approval (only state with this requirement)• 10 cents per signature “verification fee”o 2012 voters: 12 milo $960,000 in feeso We limit the signature seeking at polls to limit fringe influenceoo Florida (we do have a balanced budget amendment) Sales Tax Use Tax Property Tax NO Income Taxo Blackboard quiz password: Jefferson• Niche Theory Article1/17• Why do we study the states?o More variation in policyo Policy experimentso What starts in states sometimes goes national• Overviewo What is an interest group? “A group that acts to persuade policy makers to agree with their points of view or support policy proposals they favor, oppose those the group does not, or help keep certain issues or policy alternatives off the legislative agenda”• Support• Oppose• Control the agenda Types of Lobbying• Direct: contacting actual representatives• Grassroots: motivate action by constituents• Otherso Convincing new supporterso Dissuading people from the oppositiono Defending: protecting against lobbying by opponents Tools of the Interest Group• Hard Money (campaign contributions to candidates)• Soft Money (contributions to issue advocacy “527c” groups)• Super PACs• Expertiseo Technical Detailso Adviceo Research• Public Opiniono Pollso Advertisementso Mobilizationo Who Joins and Why? Benefits• Selective: only people in the interest group benefit (AARP)• Solidary: benefits from being part of a collective• Expressive: be able to express your opinions (can be cathartic)• Purposive: to show your support for a particular issue Unions• “Union Shop”o Some types of jobs are only open to union members• “Right to Work”o You can’t close any job to someone


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