New version page

FSU CCJ 4601 - Test 2

Upgrade to remove ads

This preview shows page 1-2-3-4-5-6 out of 17 pages.

Save
View Full Document
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience
Premium Document
Do you want full access? Go Premium and unlock all 17 pages.
Access to all documents
Download any document
Ad free experience

Upgrade to remove ads
Unformatted text preview:

Test 2 NotesPower Point #5:Road Map: A Primer on Molecular Genetics What do genes do? How do they effect behavior? How are genes inherited? What are genetic polymorphisms How does neurotransmission relate to genes? To behavior?Introduction: Molecular Genetics Behavioral Genetic Research answers the question: How much do genes matter in the formation of the phenotype? Molecular Genetic Research answers the question: What specific genes matter?A Primer on Genetics: Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): Chemical code in cell nuclei that allows us to develop and function. Implicated in physical and non-physical features Ex. Physical Features: Hair/ eye color Ex. Non-physical Features: Impulsivity/ personality Consists of two genetic fibers called polynucleotides.A Primer on Genetics: Polynucleotides consist of four bases: Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), & Cytosine (C). 4 bases that make up DNA Bases on one Poly bond with the bases on the other. A bonds with T, G bonds with C. Base PairsA Primer on Genetics: When base pairs work together to carry out a particular function in the body, they are known as a gene. About 20,000-25,000 genes per person. A gene is on average about 3,000 base pairs.What do genes do?: Genes DO NOT “code” for behaviors. Genes code for the production of proteins. Proteins: Organic compounds essential to life, implicated in many body and brain processes. “laborers”  Proteins are chains of amino acids. Amino acids coded by 3 contiguous base pairs, or codons. (20 different AAs)How does “coding” work?: While genes do in fact “code” for proteins, 90% of each gene is non-coding. So, if a gene is on average 3000 bp long, only 300 actually code for proteins. Exons: Parts that code. (codes for proteins) Introns: Parts that don’t code. “Coding” means providing the instructions to the creation of a protein. Not direct. Ex: Recipe book doesn’t bake the cake.Steps from DNA à Protein: Transcription & Translation Transcription: where genes duplicate themselves onto messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). Only exons are retained for mRNA. mRNA is single strand, not double Uracil (U) in place of Thymine (T) After duplication, mRNA leaves cell nucleus. DNA never leaves the nucleus, mRNA leave the nucleus Steps from DNA à Protein: Transcription & Translation Translation: mRNA meets up with and attaches to ribosome in the cytoplasm Ribosome: Protein “factory” Cytoplasm: Space between cell nucleus and wall. Ribosome works with tRNA (transfer RNA) to read mRNA and create amino acids. On average, 400 amino acids make a protein.Human Genetic Variation: Differences in DNA sequence à which proteins are manufactured à variation in phenotypes. Still, different proteins are not necessarily “functionally different” in the cell. How do we all end up with different DNA? Inherited on thread-like structures called chromosomes.Video:The Human Genome Project, 3D Animation.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VJycRYBNtwYProcess of Inheritance: 23 chromosomes inherited from each parent. (43 in all) One pair (2) are sex chromosomes (F: XX or M: XY).  Genes located on a specific part of a specific chromosome (ex: chromosome 5, b.p. 1,349 - 4,126) b.p.= base pair Maternal and paternal chromosomes that are homologous (matching) have same combinations of genes in the same order, but the nucleotides can differ. Nucleotide is the same thing as a base.Chromosome vs. DNA: REMEMBER: A gene is like a row of empty seats. The nucleotides like the people who sit in them. Chromosomes are basically “pieces” of DNA inherited on “threads” that are tightly coiled in order to fit in the cell nucleus. All DNA uncoiled in a straight line = 6ft.Genetic Polymorphisms: Often, maternal and paternal copies of genes are the same. For most genes there is only one version for all humans. Alternative copies of a gene are called alleles.  About 1-10% of genes have “variants” (ex: Ab, AB, aB, ab) Genes with two or more possible alleles are called genetic polymorphisms.3 types of Polymorphisms: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Most common type (90% of all) Due to single difference in nucleotide base Slight change may or may not result in different amino acid being produced. Microsatellites One allele is “longer” than the other (more base pair repeats) Minisatellites Same as micro, but larger blocks of b.p. repeats.Allelic v. Phenotypic Difference: Sometimes, allelic difference does not result in phenotypic differences. Why? How do allelic differences result in behavioral differences? Effects are probabilistic, not deterministic. Ex: lets say Gene Z has two possible alleles to inherit: “A” or “a”. Perhaps “A” increases your aggression by 3% and “a” decreases it by 1%.Inheritance Revisited: Which allele you inherit from your parents is random. Remember, your parents have two alleles on each gene, but you only inherit a single chromosome from each parent for each of the 23 chromosomes. Inherited through gametes: sperm and egg cells. These cells are different in that they only contain a “random” half of parents genetic material.Different Genetic Effects: Monogenic: one gene è one phenotype. Ex. Sickle cell anemia Polygenic: possession of certain alleles can increase or decrease odds of the phenotype. Pleiotropy: a single gene effects various phenotypes. Ex: DAT1 associated with delinquency and number of sex partners.Polymorphisms for Antisocial Behaviors: Most “candidate genes” for ASB involve neurotransmission. Brain comprised of billions of nerve cells or neurons. Neurons communicate through electrical impulses that stimulate release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters cross gap (synapse) between neurons.The “problem” with neurotransmitters: Some amount of neurotransmitters inevitably get “left behind” in the synapse. How much gets eliminated determined by: Transporter protein: “reuptake” – collects leftovers and returns them to pre-synaptic neuron. Enzymes: break down neurotransmitters left in synapse into inactive particles. Receptor protein: builds receptor sights. Exist on post synaptic neuron.  Receptor sights are neurotransmitter specific. (ex. Dopamine


View Full Document
Download Test 2
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...
Login

Join to view Test 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or
We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Test 2 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

or

By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?