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According to Campbell, roughly 10-15% of preschool children can be expected to demonstrate mild to moderate forms of behavioral disordersTremblay and his colleagues found over 50% of 17 month olds take things from others while 40% will push others to get what they wantIn summary, early problem behaviors are typically developmentally appropriateAs infancy moves into toddlerhood certain behavior problems become less prevalentGender Differences in Behavioral ProblemsWe know that teenage boys and adult men are disproportionately involved in delinquency, in unlawful acts, and especially violentBut are gender differences evident in young?Up to the age of 5, findings are somewhat mixed; some studies find males to be more troublesome, while other studies find no gender differencesParents DO NOT treat genders different; it is child-based—not gender based.They treat them differently based on child’s own preferences and wantsThere is considerable evidence of gender differences in misbehavior for school aged children.Language DevelopmentOne of the hallmarks of childhood is the acquisition of languageLanguage enables us to communicate our thoughts, hopes, feelings wants and needsLanguage makes us human!If we didn’t have a way of expessing our thoughts/feelings, we might resort to physical expressionsAt any one time, children may be cognitively mapping 1,600 words, acquiring an average of 3,000 words per yearVocabulary growth however differs from child to child**Hart and Risley’s Classic Study**Began observing children when they were 7-9 months of age (sample size 42)They followed each family for almost 3 yearsChildren from lower socioeconomic status families had fewer, on average, vocabulary than children from upper class familiesThey tracked differences in language skills by Socioeconomic Status**A child brought up in a “professional” home would accumulate experience with 45 million words, an average child in a “working class” family—26 millions words, and an average child in a “lower class” family—13 million words.PER YEARMore importantly, these differences measure as early as 3 years old, strongly predicted school performance at ago 9-10.Hart + Risley counted the number of positive affirmations (I love you, You are great) and the number of prohibitions (Don’t do that, Stop it, You are bad) stated by parents during each videotaped session.Affirmations Per HourProhibitions Per HourUPPER CLASS325MIDDLE CLASS127LOWER CLASS511Upper families over a year received 166,000 encouragements and 26,000 prohibitive statements while lower class families received 26,000 encouragements and 57,000 discouragements!Why does all this matter?Language allows us to communicate, form social networks, promotion of making friendsLanguage will either help or hinder our ability to make friends (along with numerous other individual differencesChildhood relationship problems represent one of the strongest and most enduring predictors of future problems across the life-courseCairns and Cairns (1994) found that youths with serious relationship problems in 4th grade were significantly more likely to drop out of school, use drugs in high school, and to engage in aggressive behaviors later in life.Policy ApplicationsSince we know antisocial behavior beings to emerge very early in life and remains relatively stable, what can we do?Early, VERY EARLY, intervention programs that target at-risk childrenSumming UpChildhood begins to shape the beginnings of the life courseChildhood behavioral patterns may differentially set an individual onto an antisocial, as opposed to prosocial, pathwayChildhood Adolescence AdulthoodASB ASB ASB***Should be studying shared environments in childhood, but Criminologists STILL DON’T!! Instead they study shared environments in adolescence and adulthood, when it DOESN’T MATTER as much!!Chapter Quizzes with AnswersChapter 31. Antisocial Phenotypes are created by ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC FACTORS2. Genetic factors sometimes only have an effect on a phenotype when they are paired with certain environments. This is an example of GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS3. At birth a child’s genotype and their environment are often correlated. What concept best explains why this occurs? PASSIVE GENE X INTERACTIONS4. ACTIVE gene X environment correlations can partially explain the formation of delinquent peer groups5. GENE X ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS can partially explain why exposure to the same environments often produces different responses6. The environment CAN ALTER genetic expression via epigenetic modifications7. DNA methylation REDUCES genetic expression, while histone acetylation INCREASES genetic expression8. Epigenetic modifications alter genetic expression WITHOUT CHANGING DNA sequences9. Gene X environment interactions and gene X environment correlations ARE NOT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE10. Antisocial phenotypes are most likely to surface for people WITH BOTH GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISKChapter 41. The brain weights approx. THREE POUNDS2. Approximately 60% of all genes code for the brain3. Emotions are generated in the LIMBIC SYSTEM4. The amygdala is the EMOTIONAL HUB OF THE BRAIN5. The cerebral cortex consists of FOUR lobes6. The prefrontal cortex consists of CONTROLLING EMOTIONS & EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS7. Variation in executive functions is due mostly to GENETIC FACTORS8. Genes likely influence phenotypes by influencing BRAIN STRUCTURE & BRAIN FUNCTION9. Brain imaging techniques can be used to examine BRAIN STRUCTURE & BRAIN FUNCTION10. The brain does not finish developing until the mid-to-late twenties. What is the last area of the brain to mature? THE PREFRONTAL CORTEX11. Murderers tend to have an overactive LIMBIC SYSTEM and an underactive PREFRONTAL CORTEX12. In comparison to females, males tend to have a relatively larger AMYGDALA and a relatively smaller PREFRONTAL CORTEX13. During adolescence, the LIMBIC SYSTEM has already developed, but the PREFRONTAL CORTEX has not finished maturing.14. Parents tend to socialize boys and girls SIMILARLY15. According to empirical research, the gender gap in offending behaviors can be explained by which of the following? NOT PARENTAL SOCIALIZATION OR CULTURAL FACTORSChapter 51. Sociological criminologists typically study what types of environments? SHARED ENVIRONMENTS2. Exposure to testosterone in utero MASCULINIZES the fetal brain3. Girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) display a variety of phenotypes that are typical of

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FSU CCJ 4601 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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