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*******************************************************************************Causal Order:• * = is it real or not real?• .8 = Size(X) .8 *(sig) (Y)Unemployment----------- Crime -----------Causality(Causal v. Spurious): (X) .8 (Y) 0Race ------------------------> Crime |_______ Concentrated________| DisadvantageWhen taking concentrated disadvantage (another variable) into account .8 is no longer significant. Taking concentrated disadvantage into account it becomes completely spurious.0= Completely SpuriousConditional:100M/ 100F: 200(n=100) Male Female (n=100)Effect Size .80 .00 (sig) (nonsig)Family -------------------------------- CrimeAttachment || +Male*******************************************************************************Power Point 1:Road Map: Criminology and the revolution Internal and External causes of behavior Dominance of sociological thought Is Criminology a Science? Why Criminology needs biology True or False? Misconceptions about Biological causes of crimeScience During the Past 2 Decades: Revolution focusing on: Brain Functioning Role of brain in disorders Human Genome Project (HGD) Linking genes to disease and other phenotypes.Criminology & The Revolution: Behavioral geneticists, psychiatrist, psychologist, and Nero scientist are main contributors.  Criminology largely ignores important factors. Focus on nurture. Methodological limitations.Crime as Human Behavior: Knowledge of how the body works is necessary. Behavior requires the body. Criminologists focus= Social Variables PROBLEM: Social variables have biological roots Ex: Social BondDominance of Sociological Crim.: Criminologist = Sociologist (90% of training in sociology) Ignorant of other causes of crime. Often proud of it (ideological barrier) Sociological tradition is breeding “mythical” base. Does this constitute science? Is Criminology a Science?: Is criminological knowledge based on the scientific method? Scientific method: Forming hypothesis Testing hypothesis with data Decide if hypothesis is supported Important since hunches are not always right. Ex: Deterrence hypothesisProblem with Criminology: Rarely tests biological variables Do not measure biological variables As a result, biosocial criminology research is somewhat scarce. Consequently, sociology still dominates way of thinking.  Dismissing biology based on conjecture.Why Criminology Needs Biology: Flaws of Standard Social Science Methodologies (SSSMs). Samples used only measure one child per household. Consequence: Problem of spuriousness. Example: The link between parental monitoring and child self- control.Why Criminology Needs Biology: The Nature of Nurture Soc. Criminologists wrongly assume “neat divide” between the two. Ex: Delinquent peers Social or Biological variable?Why Criminology Needs Biology: Keeping Pace with the Hard Sciences Criminology is becoming irrelevant. Still, Americans more concerned about crime today. Most “relevant” crime studies outside of discipline.Why Criminology Needs Biology: Informing Public Policy Studying biology will not lead to oppressive policy. Why?(1) Research has little influence on policy.(2) Sociological findings can have similarly “oppressive” policy implications.(3) Biological research has led to progressive policy before.True or False?: Criminal Behavior defined by laws. Crime is a social construct. True But, this does not mean biology is irrelevant to criminal behavior. Why?True or False?: The Fact that crime varies across time and space undermines biological explanations of crime.• False• Bio factors have varying effects depending on…• a) The environment• b) The stage of life courseTrue or False?: Biological causes of crime make a person less guilty than sociological influences do. True We do not assign blame, just search for truth. Responsibility not eliminated. Understanding “causes” as probabilistic. True or False?: Nothing Biological is Deterministic when it comes to Behavior True Causes are not necessary or sufficient. Causes are not deterministic, but probabilistic.True or False?: Crime can be prevented and/or treated if it has biological roots. True Environmental interventions can be used to alter biological predispositions. (ex: SSRIs) Early environmental interventions can prevent criminogenic biological development.Reconceptualizing Crim Theory: Most popular, well-known theories of crime: Social Control Self-Control Differential Association/ Social Learning Labeling Deterrence Social Disorganization Anomie/Strain, General Strain Critical Criminology (including Feminist crim.)Social Control Theory: Premise: People are constrained from committing crime by agents of social control (family, neighborhood, church, prosocial peers, job, etc.…) Posits that our “conscience” is the sum of internalized social rules of conduct. Assumption: people are naturally inclined towards crime, but refrain because of social ties to others.Social Control Theory Critique: Questions to think about: Are some people more “controlled” than others? Why? Is everyone equally and naturally inclined to commit criminal offenses? Is there another way to explain why people who tend to have more social ties are the same people who are less criminal? Can biological processes impact the presence and/or effectiveness of social control?Self Control Theory: Premise: People with less self control commit more crime. Parents inculcate self-control in children through monitoring and discipline. Self control stable after age 10.Bad Parentingà Low self controlàcrimeSelf Control Theory Critique: Questions to think about: Is there something besides parental socialization that might effect people’s self control? Do people with low self-control and high self-control encounter similarly criminogenic environments? Why or why not? How might causal order be a problem in this theory? (hint: Child-driven effects) How might self-control be related to the age-crime curve?Differential Association & Social Learning Theory: Premise: More delinquent peersà more delinquency. Sounds simple enough. How? Through differential definition reinforcement, modeling, etc. Delinquent attitudes

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FSU CCJ 4601 - Study Guide

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