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FSU CCJ 3011 - Exam 2 Study Guide

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CCJ3011Chiricos Criminology Exam 2 Study Guide1. What is criminology?a. Study of making and breaking of laws and society’s reaction to the breaking. (Edwin Sutherland)2. Statements made in a scientific way are meant to be __?__.a. falsified3. What evidence to criminologists have?a. Based on crime and criminals4. What are 2 activities of the scientific enterprise?a. Descriptionb. explanation5. What is description?a. Attempt to access what is, what was, what is changing and what patterns there are6. What is explanation?a. Attempt to answer “why” to the describedi. The way patterns relate to behavior as it is described as “real”7. What is the first component of evidence?a. Description or observation8. What are 4 ways of knowing?a. Direct observationb. Uniform crime reports (UCR)c. Victim surveysd. Self- reports9. What did Karl Popper believe?a. Different types of statements- demarcation: falsifiability10. What is theory?CCJ3011Chiricos a. Explanationb. Attempts to describe and explain. Real world is object11. What are the strengths and limitations of knowing what we know?a. Social constructions of reality12. When does direct observation happen?a. When people w/ various experiences describe their experiences(victims, crimes, law enforcement)13. What is not included in direct observation?a. Data, stats, charts- numbers14. What is a positive about direct observation?a. Provides rich detail not found in data15. What are some examples of direct observation?a. “There Are No Children Here” and “The Other Side of the River” by Kotlowitz, “Code of the Street” by Anderson, and “Monster” by Kody Scott16. What are weaknesses of direct observation?a. Different people have different perceptions of a situationb. Not falsifiable- knowledge particular to each personc. Distortion of reality: swayed by others (partial or lie)d. biased17. What makes the UCR?a. Dept. of Justice, FBI18. What 4 things are included in the UCR?a. Crimes known to police- Part 1 Offensesb. Crimes cleared by arrestc. Supplemental Homicide Report- detailed info about crime, relationships( age, race, sex)d. Law enforcement Employee Stats- # and characteristics19. What is the source of UCR data?CCJ3011Chiricos a. Voluntary info collected by Law enforcement, calculated by FBI20. What % of urban population is covered by agencies? Rural?a. 98% urbanb. 94% rural21. What are the strengths of the UCR?a. Tells about “what of some crimesb. Done consistently for decadesc. Representatived. Insight into volume and rate of crime- can be misleading b/c tourisme. Volume and rate of arrestsf. $: costs of crime22. Weaknesses of UCR?a. One victim, one crimeb. Only records most serious crimesc. Variation b/t agencies over timed. Can be misleading due to tourism23. Why do people not report crime?a. Past experience; lack of faith due to police bias; people know each other; embarrassment; police not effective; fear of retribution; victims may be criminals themselves24. What are the limitations of the UCR?a. Presence of people not counted in population(tourists)b. Doesn’t address the “who” of crime; closest is race of arrested25. What percent of violent crime and property crimes are known to the police; arrested?a. 58% violent; 27% arrested for violent crime; 73% of reality missingb. 39% property; 7% property crime arrested; 93% reality missing26. What is the dark figure of crime?CCJ3011Chiricos a. Substantial undercount of crimes known to police27. What is the overall % of index crimes that get reported to police?a. 40%28. What % is the dark figure?a. 60%29. What is the one victim, one crime rule?a. E.g if 3 people attack 1 person, only 1 crime b/c only 1 victim30. What is 1 operation, 1 crime?a. If multiple crimes, 1 victim, count the worst crime31. What is the 1 victim 1 crime & 1 operation 1 crime a form of?a. undercounting32. What are different variations among agencies to count crimes?a. Resources; pressure to show increase or decrease in crime; level of arrests; SHOCAP- look out for criminal juveniles; community policing33. Why was the Victim Survey originally formed?a. Originally to get “dark figure of crime”34. When was the victim survey created? By whom?a. 1973; Bureau of Census35. In 2010, the Bureau of Census interviewed ___?a. 41K householdsb. 73000 individualsc. Every 6 months over 3 yearsd. First interview in person, then phone36. True or False: victimization is patterned, not random.a. True37. What info do we get from victim surveys?CCJ3011Chiricos a. Relationship b/t victim and offender; weapons used; location of the offense; provide window into “who of Crime”38. Who is the most likely to be victimized by strangers?a. males39. What are limitations for the NCVS?a. People may not know/ think is crimeb. Don’t want to take timec. Exaggeration/ under report b/c embarrassmentd. Doesn’t include crimes against businesses40. What questions do self-reports surveys answer?a. Who committed the crime41. What are people’s perceptions of reported crime?a. The more crimes reported, the most strongly influenced their perceptions on severity of crime; vice versa, when crimes aren’t reported, people are influenced to commit crimesi. If reported, punishment is made aware, people are less likely to repeat crime; if not reported ut know punishment, will commit crime b/c think won’t get caught42. What SES group doe self-report surveys focus on and what is wrong with it?a. Low income; but middle and upper income people commit the same types and amounts of crime43. What are Advantages of Self-Reports?a. Criminologists look at legal processb. Ubiquity of crime44. Disadvantages of Self-reports?a. Limited to juveniles(usually)b. Liec. Episodically- not annual45. What exception to self-reports being episodic?CCJ3011Chiricos a. “monitoring the Future”-annual, survey approximately 50 thousand kids in 8th, 10th and 12th grade46. What is empirical generalization and what does it include?a. Distribution of crime by age, sex, race and place47. Relationships b/t crime and age?a. Persistentb. Looks at age and arrest48. At what age does crime peak at and why does it decline?a. 18-19years oldb. Relationships and jobs= commitmenti. Hershey’s Attachment Theoryii. Chance of losing stake in conformity49. Who accounts for most crime?a. Males at 75%50. What is the problem w/ comparing crimes?a. Different methodologies in 1 state, so different states would vary as welli. Tourism, population and climate affect it too51.


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