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FSU CCJ 3011 - Exam 1 Review- Criminology

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CCJ3011ChiricosExam 1 Review- Criminology1. What is Crime?a. A Socially constructed meaning given by social audiences2. What is a social audience?a. Any who can/ does assign meaning to a behavior, person, situation, activity w/ the power/ authority to do so3. What are 2 types of audiences and examples of each?a. Formal- exist for purpose of assigning meaning(e.g jury, judges, police)b. Informal-doesn’t exist to create meaning. No power/ authority but does so any way(can be silent-body language)4. What are 2 types of meanings given by social audiences?a. Descriptive: don’t express judgment, just what it is(E.g “Abortion”-just a med. Term)b. Normative: implicit or explicit judgment. Should or Should not(E.G murder is morally, wrong. Warrants action)5. What was the first addictive drug that has meaning of serious crime?a. CRACK COCAINE- 250,000 DEATHESb. TOBACCO6. What are 3 purposes of normative meaning?a. Ensure predictability of actionb. Minimize threatc. Promote solidarity7. What are the 4 types of threat?a. Physicalb. Material-possessionsc. Social-status, identityd. Symbolic- values, idealsCCJ3011Chiricos8. What are 3 ways criminal law is a descriptive normative meaning?a. Specificity of termsb. Uniformity of applicationc. Politicality of origin(who speaks for state)9. Whom does the state speak for? What are some examples?a. Consensual will of it’s peopleb. Will of elitesi. Religious-puritansii. Political- soviet union, chinaiii. Economic-tax makers10. What did Emile Durkheim believe was the consensus of crime?a. Collective consciencei. Widely shared beliefs and values11. How are criminal laws different from other laws such as civil and family?a. Criminal law is repressive and painful unlike others whose goals are to help individuals w/ restitution and no pain. 12. True of false: seriousness of crimes rated differs by racial and ethnic groups.a. False- relatively consistent through groups13. What is the problem with the consensus view?a. In theory, everyone has the same belief, but in real life, there is disagreementi. E.g: boy being shot(excessive force) despite being unarmed, dead end. Police @ fault or not? Disagreementb. Who speaks for the state?i. Representation skewed towards rich white old menc. Chicken v. egg- which comes first: consensus of the masses or ideas of the elites?14. What is the process of a 1-Dimensional thought filtering?CCJ3011Chiricosa. Top down by Herbet Marcuse: thoughts of elite filter down to masses15. Gramsci’s Hedgemonic consciousness can be defined as what?a. Ideas articulated filter down and feel like consensus16. What is Mill’s Heirarchy of Credibility?a. Natural to believe that ideas by power and authority are credible and valuable. “He has power, must be right”17. What is the most common serious crime?a. Property theft(92%)b. Less that 1% violent crime18. What should happen to the collective conscience as society becomes more industrialized?a. Should diminish19. What is positivism?a. The study of causes of behavior and crime20. What is the assumption of positivism?a. Criminals are fundamentally different than non-criminals21. What is simplicity?a. Relationship b/t good and bad overtime- are fundamentally differentb. Belief that good leads to good and bad leads to bad22. What is overlap?a. The commonality of good and bad at a given timeb. Good=bad, one individual is both good and bad23. What is irony?a. Start good can lead to bad; bad can lead to good24. What is social threat?a. Created by blalockk- presence of minorities perceived as threatening to dominant majorityCCJ3011Chiricos25. What 3 things can be threatened by minorities?a. Economic- jobsb. Political- elections, political powerc. criminal26. What is moral panic?a. Period of elevated public concern amplified by mediab. Juvie violence, drugs(examples)27. What is prevalent sensitivity?a. How sensitive and aware social audiences are of threats28. What are 2 types of violence?a. Random*b. Stranger **as portrayed by media. Actually patterned, not random29. What are examples of racial typification?a. Minorities-hispanic, black30. What is ceiling effect?a. People with high levels of punitiveness(awareness) have no room for influence to change opinion31. Contrary to Durkheim’s belief, what is happening to criminal law and the collective conscience as we become more industrialized?a. Collective conscience is decreasing but criminal law is increasing because common meaning is no longer there32. What is the label of crime reserved for?a. The dangerous actions of the poor33. Who is the “typical suspect”a. Young, urban, poor, African american34. True or false: criminal law creates crime?CCJ3011Chiricosa. False; just mirrors real danger35. How does society distort the images of crime?a. They created the typical suspectb. Authority crates labels of crimec. media36. True or false: the typical suspect is our greatest threat?a. False; being injured on the job is 37. What ways does the general public lose the most money?a. Tax cheating, fraud, consumer deception, embezzlement38. What is the Pyrrhic Defeat theory?a. Criminal justice does little to reduce high crimes rates39. What is the image?a. Poor people create crime40. What does Richard Quinney come up with?a. Theory of social reality of crime41. What is the social reality of crime?a. Crime is not objective(descriptive) but rather society gives it value and meaningi. E.g. $: objective- green paper, social-value42. When is the label of crime labeled appropriately?a. When used to identify all or at least the worst acts that are harmful to society43. When is crime labeled inappropriately?a. When attached to harmless acts or not attached to serious crimes44. What are the 5 hypotheses of how crime is created?a. Legislators-laws don’t only reflect dangerous behaviorsb. Police/ prosecutors- who to arrestc. Juries/ judges- convictions not limited to dangerous peopleCCJ3011Chiricosd. Sentencing judges- sentencing don’t reflect public protectione. All above45. What is the historical inertia explanation?a. Failure to reduce crime rate b/c of the benefits it produces46. What is the “Typical Criminal’s Crime”?a. 1-on-1 crime47. What is the importance of 1-on-1 crime?a. Not numbers but desire to hurt someone else48. What are 4 objections of the defenders?a. Someone who purposely harms another is more evil than one who accidently harms another in same wayb. Being harmed purposely is scarier than indirectlyc. Someone harmed another


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