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Virginia Tech BIOL 1005 - Study Guide

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Biology 1005 Chapter 6-10Study GuideThis study guide is meant to FOCUS your study efforts. The vast majority of information that you will be tested on is represented in this study guide. Stick with knowing the concepts and then focus on the details. Also, you should study what you DON’T know first, then review the stuff you feel more confident with.Chapter 6Know the laws of thermodynamics – which is which, what are some practical implications First law: energy cannot be created nor destroyedSecond law: the amount of useful energy decreases as it is converted from one form to the otherWhat is entropy?What is an exergonic reaction? Energy is released in the reaction (cellular respiration) What is an endergonic reaction? Energy is needed in the reaction (photosynthesis needs sunlight) What is a coupled reaction? When the energy from an exergonic reaction is used to drive an endergonic reactionWhat is activation energy/how is it used? Necessary energy used to start a reaction (ex energy needed to ignite glucose in glucose breakdown)What are the different types of energy carrying molecules? ADP, phosphate, NAD+, FAD and ATP What is the principle energy carrying molecule? ATP What are catalysts and enzymes? Proteins that regulate reactions How do enzymes work? Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy of a reaction (disorient molecules then reconfigure them)Enzymes regulate all of the reactions in a cell, sometimes require coenzymes in order to function What do catalysts do? Lower activation energy and speed up reactions without being fully used up themselves (ends up with the same amount of end energy) What is the sequence of events? 1. The shape and charge of the active site allows only certain substrates to pas through2. Once binding occurs, the active site and substrate change shapes 3. After reaction, the product cannot fit into active site and drifts awayWhat are the types of enzyme regulation?What is feedback inhibition? What are the environmental effects on enzymes (pH, temperature, etc)Chapter 7What are the important structures of a leaf (fig 7.1)? What does each of them do? Chloroplast: where C3 light reactions occur, where glucose is createdStoma: pores in the epidermis that get CO2 for photosynthesis, where C3 dark reactions occurMesophyll cells: layers in the leaf that contain chloroplast, where CAM reactions occur & photosynthesis occursBundle sheet cells: where C4 reactions occurThylakoids: disc-shaped membranous sacs inside the stromaWhat are the pigment types associated with photosynthesis? What major wavelengths are associated with those types? Accessory pigments (absorb additional wavelengths of light energy and transfer them to chlorophyll a), chlorophyll b (absorbs blue and red-orange wavelengths), carotenoids (absorbs blue and green light, reflects yellow and orange)Photosynthesis:1.) Know the overview of photosynthesis (fig 7.3) light reactions, followed by the Calvin cycle (enzymes in stroma use CO2 to synthesize sugar/glucose)2.) Know the reactants and products of the photosynthesis 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy  C6H12O6 + 6O23.) What happens in the light reactions (fig 7.6) – reactants, products, where they occur, associated electron carriers occur in or near the thylakoid membrane (in the chloroplast) … RuBP + 3CO2 + NADP+ C6H12O6 + NADPH + little ATP4.) What happens during chemiosmosis? (fig 7.7) – what are reactants, products, important enzymes, where it takes place occurs in the thylakoid … H+ + ADP  ATP --- hydrogen gradient generates ATP5.) What happens during the dark reactions (fig 7.10) – reactants, products, enzymes associated, electron carriers used. Takes place in the mesophyll cells during CAM reactionWhat are the MAJOR differences between C3 plants and C4 plants or CAM plants? What are the conditions where C4 and CAM plants thrive? ALL USE PEP CARBOXYLASE. Dark reactions in C3 plants occur in stroma, light reactions in C3 plants occur in cytoplasm ... When it is too hot or dry C4 or CAM processes occur (b/c stroma will dry out when trying to get CO2) —C4 changes location (occurs in bundle sheets cells), CAM changes time (occurs in mesophyll cells) – stores CO2 at night in wet, cool airChapter 8What is the connection between photosynthesis and cellular respiration? Photosynthesis obtains energy from the sun & makes glucose from it (endergonic). Cellular respiration uses the energy from the glucose for its processes (exergonic b/c it releases energy when glucose molecules are broken down)Glucose Breakdown1.) What is the overall equation for glucose breakdown, reactants, products? (fig 8.2) C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 +H2O+ ATP + heat 2.) What is the overall equation for glycolysis? What are the reactants, products etc. What is this step accomplishing? Fig 8.3, 8.7 C6H12O6  2pyruvate, NADH, ATP … glucose molecules are broken down and energy is gained3.) What happens during cellular respiration? What are the reactants, products, electron carriers etc. Fig 8.5 cellular respiration is the second step (after glycolysis) in glucose breakdown … 2 pyruvate  6CO2 +H2O +ATP + heat … electron carrier NADH is used after glycolysis4.) What is happening in the electron transport chain (hint – very similar to chemiosmosis) fig8.6 High energy electrons travel thru chain … they jump from high to low concentrations (in or out of the mitochondria) and lose small bits of energy as they jump … energy is used to power H ions and create a Hydrogen gradient, which is used to create ATP during chemiosmosisWhat are the two ways that fermentation works? Why would a cell undergo fermentation rather than respiration? Cells undergo fermentation when oxygen is not available – is a way to regenerate NAH+ (which ends up producing lactate) … lactate or ethanol + 6CO2 are products Chapter 9What are stem cells? One of the three categories of types of stem cells. Cells that have the ability to divide by themselves into specialized cell types. What is the defining characteristic of stem cells? They self-renew and differentiate throughout their lifetime.What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproductions? Asexual is reproducing by itself without gametes. Sexual is reproducing by the fusion of a sperm and egg (gametes). What is binary fission? End of the cell cycle; “splitting into two”What is the structure of chromosomes? (Fig 9.4) Double helix with different types of protein; C, G, A,


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