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Biology 1005 Chapter 6 10 Study Guide This study guide is meant to FOCUS your study efforts The vast majority of information that you will be tested on is represented in this study guide Stick with knowing the concepts and then focus on the details Also you should study what you DON T know first then review the stuff you feel more confident with Chapter 6 Know the laws of thermodynamics which is which what are some practical implications First law energy cannot be created nor destroyed Second law the amount of useful energy decreases as it is converted from one form to the other What is entropy What is an exergonic reaction Energy is released in the reaction cellular respiration What is an endergonic reaction Energy is needed in the reaction photosynthesis needs sunlight What is a coupled reaction When the energy from an exergonic reaction is used to drive an endergonic reaction What is activation energy how is it used Necessary energy used to start a reaction ex energy needed to ignite glucose in glucose breakdown What are the different types of energy carrying molecules ADP phosphate NAD FAD and ATP What is the principle energy carrying molecule ATP What are catalysts and enzymes Proteins that regulate reactions How do enzymes work Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy of a reaction disorient molecules then reconfigure them Enzymes regulate all of the reactions in a cell sometimes require coenzymes in order to function What do catalysts do Lower activation energy and speed up reactions without being fully used up themselves ends up with the same amount of end energy What is the sequence of events 1 The shape and charge of the active site allows only certain substrates to pas through 2 Once binding occurs the active site and substrate change shapes 3 After reaction the product cannot fit into active site and drifts away What are the types of enzyme regulation What is feedback inhibition What are the environmental effects on enzymes pH temperature etc Chapter 7 What are the important structures of a leaf fig 7 1 What does each of them do Chloroplast where C3 light reactions occur where glucose is created Stoma pores in the epidermis that get CO2 for photosynthesis where C3 dark reactions occur Mesophyll cells layers in the leaf that contain chloroplast where CAM reactions occur photosynthesis occurs Bundle sheet cells where C4 reactions occur Thylakoids disc shaped membranous sacs inside the stroma What are the pigment types associated with photosynthesis What major wavelengths are associated with those types Accessory pigments absorb additional wavelengths of light energy and transfer them to chlorophyll a chlorophyll b absorbs blue and red orange wavelengths carotenoids absorbs blue and green light reflects yellow and orange Photosynthesis 1 Know the overview of photosynthesis fig 7 3 light reactions followed by the Calvin cycle enzymes in stroma use CO2 to synthesize sugar glucose 2 Know the reactants and products of the photosynthesis 6CO2 6H2O light energy C6H12O6 6O2 3 What happens in the light reactions fig 7 6 reactants products where they occur associated electron carriers occur in or near the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast RuBP 3CO2 NADP C6H12O6 NADPH little ATP 4 What happens during chemiosmosis fig 7 7 what are reactants products important enzymes where it takes place occurs in the thylakoid H ADP ATP hydrogen gradient generates ATP 5 What happens during the dark reactions fig 7 10 reactants products enzymes associated electron carriers used Takes place in the mesophyll cells during CAM reaction What are the MAJOR differences between C3 plants and C4 plants or CAM plants What are the conditions where C4 and CAM plants thrive ALL USE PEP CARBOXYLASE Dark reactions in C3 plants occur in stroma light reactions in C3 plants occur in cytoplasm When it is too hot or dry C4 or CAM processes occur b c stroma will dry out when trying to get CO2 C4 changes location occurs in bundle sheets cells CAM changes time occurs in mesophyll cells stores CO2 at night in wet cool air Chapter 8 What is the connection between photosynthesis and cellular respiration Photosynthesis obtains energy from the sun makes glucose from it endergonic Cellular respiration uses the energy from the glucose for its processes exergonic b c it releases energy when glucose molecules are broken down Glucose Breakdown 1 What is the overall equation for glucose breakdown reactants products fig 8 2 C6H12O6 6O2 6CO2 H2O ATP heat 2 What is the overall equation for glycolysis What are the reactants products etc What is this step accomplishing Fig 8 3 8 7 C6H12O6 2pyruvate NADH ATP glucose molecules are broken down and energy is gained 3 What happens during cellular respiration What are the reactants products electron carriers etc Fig 8 5 cellular respiration is the second step after glycolysis in glucose breakdown 2 pyruvate 6CO2 H2O ATP heat electron carrier NADH is used after glycolysis 4 What is happening in the electron transport chain hint very similar to chemiosmosis fig8 6 High energy electrons travel thru chain they jump from high to low concentrations in or out of the mitochondria and lose small bits of energy as they jump energy is used to power H ions and create a Hydrogen gradient which is used to create ATP during chemiosmosis What are the two ways that fermentation works Why would a cell undergo fermentation rather than respiration Cells undergo fermentation when oxygen is not available is a way to regenerate NAH which ends up producing lactate lactate or ethanol 6CO2 are products Chapter 9 What are stem cells One of the three categories of types of stem cells Cells that have the ability to divide by themselves into specialized cell types What is the defining characteristic of stem cells They self renew and differentiate throughout their lifetime What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproductions Asexual is reproducing by itself without gametes Sexual is reproducing by the fusion of a sperm and egg gametes What is binary fission End of the cell cycle splitting into two What is the structure of chromosomes Fig 9 4 Double helix with different types of protein C G A T Vocabulary to have mastering understanding of loci different locations of genes on the chromosomes alleles alternative gene forms that may produce differences in structure or function telomeres the repeated nucleotide sequences at the two ends of a chromosome necessary for chromosome

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Virginia Tech BIOL 1005 - Study Guide

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