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Virginia Tech BIOL 1005 - Review Sheet

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Biology 1005 Final ExamReview SheetQuestions for the first 13 Chapters will be taken from the following sections/concepts. Remember, the review section will be 1/3 of the exam and chapters 14-17 will be 2/3 of the exam, so spend your study time wisely.Chapter 1 Introduction to Life on Earth 1.1 Know the organization of life: atom – biosphere* Atom – Molecule – Cell – Tissue – Organ – Organ System – Multicellular organism – population – species – community – ecosystem - biosphere1.3 Know the characteristics of living things. The rest of this chapter is covered in the other chapters of the book – don’t spend too much time on this.* composed of cells* maintain complex structure and internal environment through homeostasis* respond to stimuli from their environment* acquire and use materials and energy from their environment and convert them into different forms* grow* reproduce themselves, using DNA* have the capacity to evolveChapter 2 Atoms, Molecules and Life 2.1 You should know the basic structure of an atom and the definitions of the components* nucleus composed of protons and neutrons, rings of electrons surrounding it2.2 What are the characteristics of the basic types of bonds * Ionic Bond – electron is transferred, creating positive and negative ions that attract one another* Covalent Bond – electrons are shared- nonpolar – equal sharing- polar – unequal sharing* Hydrogen Bond – slightly positive hydrogen in a polar molecule attracts the slightly negative pole of a nearby polar moleculeChapter 3 Biological Molecules Table 3.2 – Types of Biological molecules – know this table and you should be in good shape* Pg. 39  building blocks of each type of moleculeReview figure 3-20 (levels of protein structure)* Primary structure – the sequence of amino acids linked by peptide bonds* Secondary structure – usually maintained by hydrogen bonds, which shape this helix* Tertiary structure – folding of the helix results from hydrogen bonds with surrounding water molecules and disulfide bridges between cysteine amino acids* Quaternary structure – individual polypeptides are linked to one another by hydrogen bonds or disulfide bridgesChapter 4 Cell Structure and Function 4.2 Know the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (Table 4.1 is good for this). You should also have a “working” understanding of the function of the various organelles.Chapter 5 Cell Membrane Structure and Function 5.2 Review how different substances move through membranes (table 5.1 is good for this)* Passive Transport – diffusion of substances across a membrane down a gradient of concentration, pressure, or electrical charge; does not require cellular energy- simple diffusion – diffusion of water, dissolved gases, or lipid-soluble molecules through thePhospholipid bilayer of membrane; no energy required- facilitated diffusion – diffusion of water, ions, or water-soluble molecules through a membrane via a channel or carrier protein- Osmosis – diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane from a region of higher free water concentration to region of lower free water concentration* Energy-requiring transport – movement of substances into or out of a cell using cellular energy, usuallysupplied by ATP- Active transport – movement of individual small molecules or ions against their concentration gradients through membrane-spanning proteins  from lower to higher concentration- Endocytosis – movement of particles or large molecules into a cell; occurs as the plasma membrane engulfs the substance in a membranous sac that pinches off, entering the cytoplasm- Exocytosis – movement of particles or large molecules out of a cell; occurs as the plasma membrane encloses the material in a membranous sac that moves to the cell surface and fuses with the plasma membrane, allowing its contents to diffuse out*Proteins manufactured in the ribosomes (held in the rough ER) and packaged in the golgi apparatusChapter 6 Energy Flow in the Life of a Cell 6.2 Review the basic types of chemical reactions, activation energy, and how enzymes decrease activation energy (figure 6-10)* exergonic reaction – releases energy* endergonic – requires net input of energy* activation energy – energy required to start reactions* Enzymes speed up processes, so less activation energy is needed6.3 You should know the structure of ATP and how it converts to ADP* ATP is made of the nitrogen-containing base adenine, sugar ribose, and 3 phosphate groups* ATP releases energy between second and third phosphate when their bond is broken* ATP is broken down into ADP and phosphate6.4 Know the characteristics of enzymes (catalysts, enzyme-substrate interactions etc.) figure 6-11* Catalysts speed up reactions without being used up* Enzymes are biological catalysts; they are specific for the reactions they catalyze, activity is regulated* Enzymes catalyze reactions by orienting, disorienting and reconfiguring molecules in the process of lowering the amount activation energy needed for the reactionChapter 7 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis -- IMPORTANT7.1 You should know the basic structure of a leaf (figure 7-1), and the overview of the photosynthetic reactions* Chloroplast – where photosynthesis takes place* Mesophyll – inside chloroplast (at thylakoid membrane), where photosynthesis takes place* Stomata (Stoma) – pores that receive CO2 for photosynthesis* Stroma – fluid found within double membrane of chloroplasts* Bundle Sheath Cells – supply water and minerals to mesophyll* Photosynthesis- Reactants – 6Co2, 6H20, light energy- Products – C6H12O6 and 6O27.2 You should understand what is happening in the light reactions and dark reactions, and how they are connected (figures 7-6, 7-7 and 7-10)* light reactions take in light and water and use energy to create ATP – C3-H2O goes to CO2 and makes ATP and NADPH-as electron travels down electron transport chain it will pull H+ molecules with it as it moves down the concentration gradient-ATP synthase generates ATP from the rush created by electrons going down the concentration gradient* dark reactions take place at night using light independent reactions – CAM-ATP and NADPH from light reactions used to drive dark reactions-use carbon to make sugar (autotrophs)-use energy  pack carbon molecules together to make


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