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Plate Tectonics Be able to define the principle of uniformitarianism What composition of the mantle km makes up the lithosphere What is the thickness of continental crust What is the rate of plate movement cm yr What is a triple junction Name the process that leads to mountain building Be able to draw what takes place in the three plate boundaries State factors given as evidence of plate tectonics eg paleoclimate How are oceans formed What is the name of the zone that earthquakes take place in State the difference between a passive continental margin and an active continental margin Minerals Be able to define a mineral List the physical properties used to identify minerals Know the seven groups of minerals in terms of classification and examples of each Rock Cycle Know how to draw and explain in detail the rock cycle How is rock texture described Igneous Rocks Know how extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks are distinguished What is Nucleation Explain the relation between cooling rate and grain size Distinguish between the three different textures of igneous rocks Phaneritic Aphanitic Porphyritic Know the following The two most abundant elements in the lithosphere and their percentages The four 4 major compositional groups of Igneous Rocks The three types of melting that lead to rock and mineral melting Sedimentary Rocks Define the term sediment Distinguish between chemical weathering and physical weathering Name the two products of weathering processes Name the three classes of Sedimentary rock Identify the 6 step process in the formation of Clastic Sed Rocks List four major steps in sedimentary rock identification ist three types of sedimentary structures Metamorphic Rocks Define a Metamorphic Rock Discuss the three main agents of Metamorphism Discuss Lithostatic vs Directed pressure Why is this important Name and define each of the four environments of Metamorphism What are the two main groups of Metamorphic Rock Textures How are Metamorphic Rocks classified In general know at least the names of two types of each rock uniformitarianism is the principle that the present holds the key to the past the lithosphere is made up of 70 150km the continental crust is 35 to 45 km thick The triple junction is a very active continental margin where 3 plates meet Convergent plate tectonics lead to mountain building Factors that give evidence of plate tectonics paleomagneticism gps earth s magnetic field geographical distribution of earthquakes along the plate VLBI and heat flow transects prove the existence of plate tectonics Oceans are formed by the spreading of the ocean s sea floor through convergent or divergent boundaries The WB Wadatti Benioff zone is the name of the zone that earthquakes take place in Passive continental margin is nothing taking place an active continental margin is where a lot of activities taking place a mineral is an inorganic naturally occurring substance that has a characteristic chemical composition distinctive properties and crystalline structure The seven groups of minerals in terms of classification and examples of each color crystal form luster streak hardness cleavage fracture tenacity Rock texture is described by grain size and grain shape Extrusive igneous rocks forms above earth s surface intrusive igneous rocks forms below earth s surface nucleation is the initial formation of a microscopic crystal which atoms progressively bond smaller the grain size the faster the cooling rate phaneritic slow cooling with visible crystals aphantic crystals to see porphyritic has small and large crystals sizes Oxygen and silicon are the two most abundant elements in the lithosphere felsic intermediate mafic ultramafic make up the four major compositional groups of igneous rocks the three types of melting that leads to rock and mineral melting decompression flax heat transfer Sediment loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials rock fragments mineral grains parts of plants or animals like seashells and twigs and chemical residues like rust chemical weathering the decomposition or dissolution of earth materials physical weathering the cracking crushing and wearing away f earth s materials the two products of the weathering process are sediments and aqueous solutions The three classes of sedimentary rock are biochemical made of plants and animals chemical when aqueous solutions full of dissolved chemicals evaporate they form chemical sediment detrital worn from land the 6 step process in the formation of clastic sed rocks weathering deposition erosion transportation lithification hardening of sediment to produce rock diagenesis the four major steps in sedimentary rock identification determine and record the rocks mineral composition w acid test hardness test with streak plates identify rocks texture identify size of the grains 3 types of sedimentary structures mudc racks raindrop impressions trace fossils heat atoms being disposed pressure chemically active fluids metamorphic rock rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat intense pressure or the action of watery hot fluids the three main agents of metamorphism lithostatic pressure exerted on the rock equally in all directions directed pressure exerted non equally so rock becomes flat on one side 4 environment s of metamorphism regional metamorphism mountain building occur very large areas generally accompanied by folding rock layers contact metamorphism occurs locally adjacent to igneous intrusions and along fractures that are in contact with hydrothermal fluids dynamic metamorphism no pressure temp changes but changesin hydrothermal fluids ex fracture zones burial metamorphism occurs far below the surface two main types of Metamorphic Rock textures foliated layering and parallel alignment of mineral crystals foliation forms perpendicular to pressure examples slaty cleavage phyllite texture schistosity gnesisic banding nonfoliated rocks that have no obvious layering examples crystalline marble microcrystalline sandy glassy How are metamorphic Rocks classified composition color foliation Examples foliated slate phyllite non foliated marble anthracite coal Some of the factors for shoreline erosion is wave action tidal currents wave currents or drainage the erosion of solid rock along a coast takes place because of milling emergent coastlines will have raised beach features river estuaries will tend to be narrow and relativelt steep as the uplift may exceed the rate of downcutting water level lower

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FSU GLY 1000L - Plate Tectonics

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