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FSU GLY 1000L - Plate Tectonics

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Plate TectonicsBe able to define the principle of uniformitarianism What composition of the mantle (km) makes up the lithosphere? What is the thickness of continental crust? What is the rate of plate movement (cm/yr)? What is a triple junction? Name the process that leads to mountain building. Be able to draw what takes place in the three plate boundariesState factors given as evidence of plate tectonics. eg (paleoclimate) How are oceans formed? What is the name of the zone that earthquakes take place in? State the difference between a passive continental margin and an active continental margin MineralsBe able to define a mineral List the physical properties used to identify minerals Know the seven groups of minerals in terms of classification and examples of each Rock CycleKnow how to draw and explain in detail the rock cycle How is rock texture described? Igneous RocksKnow how extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks are distinguished What is Nucleation? Explain the relation between cooling rate and grain size Distinguish between the three different textures of igneous rocks :Phaneritic, Aphanitic & Porphyritic Know the following: • The two most abundant elements in the lithosphere and their percentages • The four (4) major compositional groups of Igneous Rocks • The three types of melting that lead to rock and mineral melting Sedimentary RocksDefine the term sediment Distinguish between chemical weathering and physical weathering Name the two products of weathering processes Name the three classes of Sedimentary rock Identify the 6 step process in the formation of Clastic Sed. Rocks List four major steps in sedimentary rock identification ist three types of sedimentary structures Metamorphic RocksDefine a Metamorphic Rock? Discuss the three main agents of Metamorphism Discuss Lithostatic vs Directed pressure. Why is this important? Name and define each of the four environments of Metamorphism What are the two main groups of Metamorphic Rock Textures? How are Metamorphic Rocks classified? In general, know at least the names of two types of each rock• uniformitarianism is the principle that the present holds the key to the past. •the lithosphere is made up of 70-150km .•the continental crust is 35 to 45 km thick.•The triple junction is a very active continental margin where 3 plates meet. Convergent plate tectonics lead to mountain building. • Factors that give evidence of plate tectonics,•paleomagneticism, gps, earth’s magnetic field, geographical distribution of earthquakes along the plate, VLBI, and heat flow transects prove the existence of plate tectonics.•Oceans are formed by the spreading of the ocean’s sea floor through convergent or divergent boundaries. •The WB , Wadatti-Benioff zone is the name of the zone that earthquakes take place in. •Passive continental margin is nothing taking place, an active continental margin is where a lot of activities taking place. •a mineral is an inorganic naturally occurring substance that has a characteristic chemical composition, distinctive properties and crystalline structure. •The seven groups of minerals in terms of classification and examples of each.•color•crystal form•luster•streak•hardness•cleavage/fracture•tenacity•Rock texture is described by grain size and grain shape•Extrusive igneous rocks forms above earth’s surface•intrusive igneous rocks forms below earth’s surface•nucleation is the initial formation of a microscopic crystal which atoms progressively bond•smaller the grain size, the faster the cooling rate•phaneritic <slow cooling with visible crystals>•aphantic<crystals to see>•porphyritic <has small and large crystals>•sizes•Oxygen and silicon are the two most abundant elements in the lithosphere •felsic, intermediate, mafic, ultramafic make up the four major compositional groups of igneous rocks•the three types of melting that leads to rock and mineral melting•decompression, flax, heat transfer•Sediment- loose grains and chemical residues of earth materials, rock fragments, mineral grains, parts of plants or animals like seashells and twigs and chemical residues like rust. •chemical weathering- the decomposition or dissolution of earth materials •physical weathering- the cracking, crushing, and wearing away f earth’s materials. •the two products of the weathering process are sediments and aqueous solutions•The three classes of sedimentary rock are •biochemical- made of plants and animals•chemical- when aqueous solutions full of dissolved chemicals evaporate they form chemical sediment•detrital- worn from land, •the 6 step process in the formation of clastic sed rocks•weathering•deposition•erosion•transportation•lithification- hardening of sediment to produce rock •diagenesis •the four major steps in sedimentary rock identification•determine and record the rocks mineral composition w/ acid test•hardness test with streak plates•identify rocks texture•identify size of the grains•3 types of sedimentary structures•mudc racks•raindrop impressions•trace fossils•metamorphic rock-rocks changed from one form to another by intense heat, intense pressure or the action of watery hot fluids•the three main agents of metamorphism•heat (atoms being disposed)•pressure•chemically active fluids•lithostatic pressure- exerted on the rock equally in all directions•directed pressure-exerted non-equally so rock becomes flat on one side• 4 environment s of metamorphism•regional metamorphism mountain building, occur very large areas, generally accompanied by folding rock layers•contact metamorphism: occurs locally adjacent to igneous intrusions and along fractures that are in contact with hydrothermal fluids•dynamic metamorphism-no pressure/temp changes but changesin hydrothermal fluids ex: fracture zones•burial metamorphism- occurs far below the surface•two main types of Metamorphic Rock textures•foliated- layering and parallel alignment of mineral crystals. foliation forms perpendicular to pressure •examples; slaty cleavage, phyllite texture, schistosity, gnesisic banding•nonfoliated- rocks that have no obvious layering•examples: crystalline(marble), microcrystalline, sandy, glassy•How are metamorphic Rocks classified?•composition•color•foliation•Examplesfoliated non-foliatedslatephyllitemarbleanthracite coal•Some of the factors for shoreline erosion is wave action, tidal


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