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FSU GLY 1000L - Chapter 2

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GLY 1000 Fall 2012 Final Exam Review SheetChapter 2:*Understand different aspects of plate tectonics (Very Important!), including different types of plate boundaries, theory of continental driftPlate tectonics is a model hypothesis that explains the geologic structure & processes of the earth- Divergent boundary- slide away from each other   (@- Convergent boundary- slide toward each other   (@ mid ocean ridge)- Transform boundary- slide past each other (where plates are neither formed nor destroyed)Continental drift- size and position of plates change over time (200 million years ago all together “Pangaea”)* Know general layering of the earth (ex. Core, mantle , etc.) Lithosphere- earth’s surface (the crust) Asthenosphere- a plastic layer (upper mantle)The lithosphere is broken up into several plates and the plates float on the asthenosphere.*Know generally where continents on earth were located millions of years ago in relation to where *Know where earthquakes and volcanoes are likely to occur on earth- edges of plates*Know three main types of faults- Normal = extensional/tension forces- Reverse = compressional forces - Strike slip= shear forces *Know difference between flux and decompression melting- Flux melting- occur at subduction zones, plates bring down water bearing sediments. Lowers melting point of surrounding mantle & induces melting- Decompression Melting- occurs at mid ocean ridges and hot spots. The process of the mantle decompressing as it rises to the surface*Know what a hotspot is and where they are located on earth2 theories: 1. long lived narrow plumes of hot mantle rock that rise rapidy from deep in the Earth and undergo decompression melting2. Slow decompression melting of large mass of hot mantle rock that has been sitting in the upper mantle for a long time- Hawaii & YellowstoneChapter 3:*Know what luster is How light is reflected from the surface of a mineral-2 types: Metallic & Non-Metallic *Know why color is not usually the best way to identify a mineralBecause some minerals change color or have various forms of different color*Know what streak is and why it is helpfulColor of a powdered mineral, which is tested by rubbing the mineral across a porcelain streak plate*Understand the Mohs hardness scale and how you can use it to identify minerals- When identify mineral a mineral, you should mainly be able to distinguish minerals that are relatively hard (6.0 or higher on Mohs scale) from minerals that are relatively soft (less than or equal to 5.5 on Mohs scale). You can identify the minerals hardness by comparing it to the table or the Mohs kit. *Understand fracture (conchoidal vs. irregular)-conchoidal- tend to fracture like glass- along ribbed, smoothly curved surfaces- irregular- uneven splintery hacky*Understand cleavage and how it differentiates from fracture-cleavage – tendency of a mineral to break along flat planes of weaker bonding-Fracture- cleavage is absent and mineral breaks irregulary*Know special qualities of minerals we identified such as magnetism, salty taste, effervescence to acid- Magnetite – magnetism-Halite – salty taste- Calcite- effervescence to acid*Given one mineral and identification sheet be able to identify it(LOOK @ POWERPOINT)Chapter 4:*Understand the entire process of the rock cycle and how each type of rock becomes another type of rock, understand interlocking processes such as erosion, and magma formation*Know basic sediment size identification: (Ex: difference between size of cobble and sand)Grain size tells us how far the grains traveled before deposition: Gravel, Sand, Silt, ClayThe smaller the grain size, the farther the grain traveled. *Know the difference between clastic and non clastic rocksClastic- made of grains called clasts, fragments of rocks, mineral crystals, shells and plants.*Know difference between foliated and non-foliated rocksFoliation= layering and parallel alignment of mineral crystals. Foliation forms perpendicular to pressure.4 types of foliation textures: slaty cleavage, phyllite texture, schistosity, gneissic banding. Non- foliated= rocks that have no obvious layering4 main texture types: crystalline (marble), Microcrystalline, sandy (quartzite), glassy (anthracite)Chapter 5:*Know difference between magma and lava- Magma: below Earth’s surface, cools slowly; forms Intrusive igneous rocks-Lava: above Earth’s surface, cools fast; forms Extrusive igneous rocks*Know certain magma/lava forming geologic structures (Ex. Dikes, Sills, etc.)Magma- intrusive igneous rocks:Batholiths= large intrusion of magmaSill= horizontal intrusion of magmaDike= vertical intrusion of magmaVolcanic Neck= core of volcano (magma)Lava- Extrusive igneous rocks:Lava flowsVolcano cones (made of lava or from pyroclastics)Pyroclastic flows (made of pyroclastics- ash, lapilli, and volcano bombs*Know three different types of pyroclastics, Hint. Based on size*Know the difference between intrusive and extrusive volcanic rock-Intrusive (Plutonic): molten rock cools before it reaches earth’s surface. Slow cooling = big crystals-Extrusive (Volcanic): Molten rock cools at the earth’s surface. Fast cooling= tiny crystals*Know different textures of igneous rocks and why they have those textures*Know the difference between felsic and mafic rocks (Important!)-Felsic (or granitic or sialic) rocks: dominated by silicon and aluminum, usually light in color, characteristic of continental crust, forms a stiff lava or magma, minerals commonly present: k-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, bitotite-Mafic (or basaltic) rocks: contains magnesium and iron silicates, usually dark in color, characteristic of earth’s oceanic crust, forms a runny lava, have 46-85% mafic minerals.*Know how to use identification sheet to identify one igneous rockLook @ powerpointChapter 6:*Generally how does a sedimentary rock form1. Weathering – the process of breaking down rocks and minerals into smaller pieces by water, wind, and ice. This creates the grains2. Transport & Deposition – grains are transported by wind or water, variable distances.3. Lithification – the hardening of sediment through compaction and cementation, this forms the rock*What is the framework and the matrix of a sedimentary rockA sedimentary rock is made up of GRAINS. Grains= rock fragments, minerals, fossils.A sedimentary rock is like a cookie… the chocolate chips are large grains that provide the main structure to the rock- we call these


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