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CPO3101 Final Exam Notes Public opinionWhy does Public opinion matter? - EU citizens preferences: further integration and the lines of political conflict in the EU policy makingDifferent modelsCleavage model - national territory (zero sum game?) and trans national socioeconomic. Every time one country wins, another country loses. This is hardly the case with the EU. The problem comes when countries Benicia more than others. The transnational socioeconomic interests of like, for example a farmer in France, and Germany have closer interests for a policy than the farmer in France, and a French corporate TitanPermissive consensus- people do not have a strong opinion on EU policy, and as such the people usually let their leaders do the policy making. Eurobarometer - survey distributed every 6 months in EU member state to gauge support for EUMaastricht treat in the early 1990s caused a drop in EU support because it established it formallyNational divisions determining if the states citizens support EULengthy membership - states in EU longer than others tend to oppose EUNational identity - if you have a strong national attachment, you support EU more than if you do not have a strong national attachmentEconomic gains - did you benefit? Also do you get more money from EU than you gave? If so you support EU more than those who are losing moneyInformation deficit - more information you have, the less you like EU (only a 5% drop from mid 90s - 2003 in countries like Ireland, Austria, Denmark and Sweden because they already had the info available) there was a big drop in countries with little to no information after Maastricht treatyParties and governments popularity and their positions on the EU integrations - do you trust your own national government? If so, then you also trust EU more often than not.Transnational conflicts in EU Class interestMore supportive classes: employers, directors, professionalsLess support supportive classes: skilled workers, retired, unemployedClass voting replaced by post materialist values: environment, women's and minorities rights, age vs generational difference, education, religious differences intro of atheism and agnostics Catholics support EU more than prostesants Right left ideologyRight likes equality of opportunityLeft likes equality of outcomesCenter is more pro EU than the left and right, but it can carry by country to countryElites dilemmaElites support EU vs masses support 94% to 48%Elites will have to falsify their preferences toward EUAbandon consensus politics between the national elitesWhen economy is bad, people want to pull out of EU, when it is better they want to staySingle market and regulatory policyThree types if economic policiesRegulatory policiesExpenditure policiesMacroeconomic policies Regulatory policiesTwo policies, redistribution vs efficiency Redistribution - taxing the rich to give to the poor is an example of redistribution policy. Hurts the rich, helps the poorEfficiency - does not necessarily hurt anyone, but instead may help one moreRegulatory policies are usually concerned with the protection of the public interest and they are meant to be used only to correct or prevent market failuresTechnical standards and consumer protection standards are regulatory policiesHealth and safety standards and environmental standards (negative externalities)Competition policies (price collusion)Industry regulators (price controls)Democratic parliaments and governments tend to favor policies that redistribute resources - this highlights the need to independent institutionsThe normative approach governments, and parliaments are more likely to get involved in redistribution vs economic theory of regulations (supply and demand) industry does not want more environmental regulations, and are concentrated, people on support of environmental regulation is diffused interest The need for some type of democratic institutional control (lost criteria, reports, replace the head of the agency, ect) Deregulation policiesThe single marketSingle European act 1985 - completing the internal market by 31 December 1992Removal of physical barriers (goods and persons)Technical barriers (Dijon ruling) Movement of capital: free flow of capitalFiscal barriers: proposed harmonization of the value added taxEuropean sales tax... Obligation of every state to have at least a 15% sales taxCompetition policyAntitrust regulations (covering the publicly owned industries) so no one company gets a monopoly Regulation of state aids - acts to restrict subsidizing a industry within a member state... They make sure it is limited Merger control - multiple companies coming together, creates the threat of a monopoly artificially keeping prices up Merger regulations 1989European Commission deals with this, business an appeal to the European general court, or court of justice, but it takes a long time to get your cases reviewed because the court is back logged with other cases.Companies cannot own more than a certain percent of their own countries industry, and cannot be more than a certain percent within the European Union There has been Deregulation in a large number of sectors such as air transport telecommunications electric supply and financial servicesNo covered service integration and open method of coordinationRe-regulation policyEnvironmental policies Not an initial area if competence for the EU but that changes with the single European actHas more environmental laws than any other areaWhy so efficient (normative, and market failure principals) stops free riding in regards to protecting the environmentSocial policy One of the Original objectives of the EU Charter in the fundamental, rights (treaty of Lisbon) UK Poland, Czech Republic Policies on workers rights are less about market failures and more about ideological preferences Most successful, equality and nondiscrimination policiesSocial security, country you are working win deals with your coverage. Ala a UK citizen gets a job in Italy, they get Italian social security coverage Why the different success of deregulatory vs regulatory policies? Intergovernmental bargainingProduct related standards - information, ingredients and how it is packaged and soldProcess related standards - how a good or service is going to be produced It is easier to get product related standards passed because there is a advantage to having a universal labelingWhen you regulate process standards, it harms the states comparative

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FSU CPO 3101 - Study Guide

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