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Feb 1st, first blackboard assignment dueCouncil of Europe, not a part of the European Union European Union is a political system with characteristics of federal states and a sovereign stateTheoriesIntergovernmentalism makes a general assumption that the governments of the member states will be the most importantPower of eu is decided by the amount of power that member states decide to give it, at any moment, the members can take away the powerSupranational politics: supranational institutions after and can change outcomes without explicit agreements between the member states. The institutions matter, and have a mind of their own - the states still matterExample, European treaties being interpreted by European court of justice in such a way that the ms did not foresee or want They are rational actorsEuropean Union is a political system - does not fit into other categories like federation or sovereign state52 (51) ECSC - European coal and steel community - established to help prevent the 3rd world war. Wanted to make sure France and Germany will never go to war again - did not take into account nuclear weaponsProposed by Robert Schumann *9th of may* - like the 4th of July for Europe Marshall plan - humanitarian and economic, and military to counter USSRConvince states, France and Germany that it is a good idea 1958 EUROATOM - to control nukes in EuropeLead to EEC - European economic community - created by the treaty of Rome (57)BENELUX and GR IT FR: Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, Italy, France... Original members of EUJean Monnet - economist who was the brains behind the creation of ECSC and EEC... Appointed by Charles de Gaulle Charles de Gaulle - mixed record in re EU. He kept UK out of EU because UK was too close to US and curtailed the European Commission which is the executive branch of the EU. He organized the France resistance during German occupation, and France revived as a solid economic power 1/14/13 European economic community1963 élysées treaty with Chancellor Adenauer and de Gaulle visit each other after the formers election: take an official joint stance on the European community De Gaulle and the European Commission: all import levies coming into the EU would go to fund the EU and not the member states. 1965 president of the European Commission Hallstein asked for money earlier than under the treaty of Rome. Hallstein said they would renegotiate the terms of the treaty, and de Gaulle pulled the French representative from the European Commission. Empty chair crisis1966 Luxembourg compromise: 100% of states must agree to pass a law before it was a qualified majority so in theory, a law could be passed without France's approval. Commission will not get their money, or their own funds1961: UK applies to be a member state of the European Commission. De Gaulle would not allow UK in because he feared that the US would hold sway over them. UK has a nuke missile treaty with US and de Gaulle cites this as a reason.1967: UK applies again, de Gaulle blocksCAP: common agriculture policy - gave subsidiaries to farmers allowed for EU to become customs union 1969: UK accepted in EU and France's new president is Pompidou The Hague summit 1969 - completion of the CAP deepening EMU and enlargement - the spirit of The Hague EC gets its own resources come from tariffs from imports Tension between Germany and France as a result of Germany's Ostpolitik (willy Brandt) and its economic might - he wanted a relation with east Germany.... London axis seen as a potential replacement... Did not like CAP either Britain along ith Denmark, Ireland and Norway applies again for EC membership, Britain, Denmark, and Ireland, finally becomes member in 1973 - Norway has a referendum and rejects joining because oil and fisheries1975 Britain holds referendum for staying into EC - 60% like it1975 the launch of European Council. It marked revitalization of the French/German axis (gliscard and Schmidt) 1979 launch of the European monetary system (EMS); the man behind it was Jenkins's, president of the commission... Linked currencies, and inflation should not be more than 2.25% - based on German currency 1979 - the first directly elected Parliament 410 members. Antihero Spinelli tried to increase the importance of the parliament and one of the parliaments committee came up with a draft treaty establishing the European Union which was passed by the parliament in 1984New era under Francois and helmut kohlFontainebleau summit 1984Solved britains budgetary question aka BBQ championed by margret thatcher Clear move towards a sing,e international market by calling for the abolition of customs. Arrives and the free movement of people, 01/28/13Transformation and enlargementMediterranean enlargementEC transformation towards the new EUThe single European act (renewed talks about the EMU)End of communist regimes in east Europe and German reunificationMaastricht treatyGreece 1981, Portugal and Spain 1986 apply for EC membership - must change economy to free market, accept all the laws passed by the EU, and be a democracyPoor countries with big populationsPolitical will vs economic argumentsEconomic arguments against them... CAP and fisheries (Spain had a lot of fishing boats)Political arguments for... To make sure that Spain and Portugal stay a democracy French concerns about the Iberian countriesNew leadership, Mario Soares ( Portugal ) and Felipe Gonzalez (Spain)1985 integrated Mediterranean programs, Greek debacle - Greece held Portugal and Spain's acceptance hostage, for more money from the EUJacques Delors, president of the commission Objectives: revitalize EC, reignite the monetary union discussion and increase commission power in the field of foreign policy and defense policy The white paper: it called for a completion if the single market suggesting a staggering amount of 300 commission proposalsDooge report : puts forward ideas from improving the operation of the European community system and proposes ways of enhancing European political cooperation (EPC)1985 Milan summit: endorsed the white paper and passed a vote (3 counties voted against) in favor if an intergovernmental conference to negotiate a treaty on foreign policy and security cooperation - UK Greece, and Denmark The single European act, (Luxembourg 1986)Sep 1985 - January 1986: intergovernmental Confrence led by the states foreign ministers - approved a cautious EPC (coordinate positions, within the NATO obligations) EC policies and

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FSU CPO 3101 - Notes

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