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FSU HME 4221 - Exam 2 Review

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Exam 2 Review (Chapter 8 -14) Chapter 8 Change in population  The world population is over 6.7 billion, and the greatest concentration of people is in Asia China is the most populous country It is estimated that by 2050, India will surpass China as the most populous country By 2050, 75% of the world’s population will live in cities Many of the world’s cities are called gateway cities: because they are located on borders (between countries) or on coastlines  Immigrants often arrive in gateway cities Human Capital: the sum total of an individual’s human resources  Human Resources can be divided into three main categories: Cognitive: knowledge, intelligence, and reasoning Affective: emotions and feelings Psychomotor: muscular activity associated with mental processes and the ability to do physical work Many tasks require skills from two or more of these categories Ex: typing requires cognitive and psychomotor skills Ex: parenting requires all three types of human resources One important population change in the United States is the rapid increase in the percentage of minority and immigrant groups Another trend is the maturation or aging of society The baby-boom generation has grown up and established family/community roots, cared for teenage kids, and elderly parents Elderly people today are healthier, more active, and more affluent than those from previous generations  Alvin Toffler: author of Future Shock, coined the word “demassification”: which means breaking away from mass society where everyone must be the same  The primary source of the United States population data is the national census, which is taken every 10 years by the Bureau of the Census First census was taken in 1790 when George Washington was present; the population then was 3.9 million.  Demography, Demographics, Family demography, Fertility rate, Morality, Immigration Demography: the study of the characteristics of human populations- that is, their size, growth, distribution, density, movement, and other vital statistics Demographics: are data used to describe populations or subgroups  Family Demography: was founded by Paul Glick who wrote the first overview of the field for the Journal of Marriage and Family (1988)  Population figures are affected by 3 main factors: Births Deaths ImmigrationExam 2 Review (Chapter 8 -14) The birthrate is technically termed “fertility” Fertility rate: the yearly number of births per 1,000 women of childbearing age List of countries that are experiencing a dramatic drop in the average number of children born per woman from the early 1980s to early 2000s: Brazil China Indonesia Mexico Russia Thailand Tunisia Turkey Mortality: the technical term for death Immigration: refers to the number of people who enter and settle in a country where they are not native From 2000-2010 in the U.S. the most rapid regional growth was in the South and West, the most populous states are California Texas New York Florida Illinois Another way to look at population: by density (the average number of residents per square mile in each state) Top 5 by density: District of Columbia (DC) New Jersey Puerto Rico Rhode Island Massachusetts  The least densely populated state: Alaska Fertility Rates are plummeting Globally, the average life span has jumped from 49.5 years, to 63 years High unemployment and poor economies have been shown to have direct impact on fertility rates in industrialized countries Ex: During the Great Depression, the U.S. had low fertility rates The U.S. had birthrate increases (sharply) after WW2. Known as the “baby-boom”: 3.9 million babies were born A documented trend is a DECREASE in teen pregnancies  Since 1990, the U.S. rate has dropped by almost 10% Population growth The median age is 37 years old  There are 16 million college students in the U.S.Exam 2 Review (Chapter 8 -14) There are more females than males *(however, the ratio varies by age groups -> in the younger years, there are more males than females) Minority groups are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population  On average: minority populations are younger than other Americans, have higher birthrates, and their numbers are increasing owing to immigration Race categories on the census include: White Latino/Hispanic Black/African American American Indians/Alaskan Natives Asians Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Other About 17% of Native American firms are in the service sector, including casinos  Hispanics/Latinos are the fastest growing minority group in the U.S. Majority live in Arizona, New Mexico, Florida, Texas, and California 1/3 of blacks live in one of the following five states: Georgia Florida Texas California New York Asian Americans constitute 3-4 % of the nation’s population They place a high emphasis on parent child relationships and practice filial piety: respect for elders and having a moral duty to obey, honor, and assist parents  They are the most highly educated  Mobility, Household The number of households is increasing in the U.S., but the number of persons per household is decreasing  One reason for the decline in household size? Lower fertility rates Male-headed households are the fastest growing type of household  Change: means to cause to be different, to alter, or to transform Two types:• Internal Change: originates within the family♦ Ex: births, marriages, divorces, deaths• External Change: fostered by society or the outer environment♦ Ex: tornados, recessions Adaptability: the ability to cope with change It is an example of a human resource that everyone has, but in different quantities Because of personality, behavioral, and situational factors, each person approaches change differentlyExam 2 Review (Chapter 8 -14) Mobility: the technical term for changing residences About one of six adults changes addresses every year Those in childbearing ages once in every three years  Typical householder moves every 5-6 years Mobility affects finances Moving is usually a stressor Children may have to change schools due to a move, parents changing a job Moving affects individual or family morale (can be positive or negative)  Spiraling, fatalism,


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