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Exam 2 Review Chapter 8 14 Chapter 8 Change in population The world population is over 6 7 billion and the greatest concentration of people China is the most populous country It is estimated that by 2050 India will surpass China as the most populous is in Asia country By 2050 75 of the world s population will live in cities Many of the world s cities are called gateway cities because they are located on borders between countries or on coastlines Immigrants often arrive in gateway cities Human Capital the sum total of an individual s human resources Human Resources can be divided into three main categories Cognitive knowledge intelligence and reasoning Affective emotions and feelings Psychomotor muscular activity associated with mental processes and the ability to do physical work Many tasks require skills from two or more of these categories Ex typing requires cognitive and psychomotor skills Ex parenting requires all three types of human resources One important population change in the United States is the rapid increase in the percentage of minority and immigrant groups Another trend is the maturation or aging of society The baby boom generation has grown up and established family community roots cared for teenage kids and elderly parents Elderly people today are healthier more active and more affluent than those from previous generations Alvin Toffler author of Future Shock coined the word demassification which means breaking away from mass society where everyone must be the same The primary source of the United States population data is the national census which is taken every 10 years by the Bureau of the Census First census was taken in 1790 when George Washington was present the population then was 3 9 million Demography Demographics Family demography Fertility rate Morality Immigration Demography the study of the characteristics of human populations that is their size growth distribution density movement and other vital statistics Demographics are data used to describe populations or subgroups Family Demography was founded by Paul Glick who wrote the first overview of the field for the Journal of Marriage and Family 1988 Population figures are affected by 3 main factors Births Deaths Immigration Exam 2 Review Chapter 8 14 The birthrate is technically termed fertility Fertility rate the yearly number of births per 1 000 women of childbearing age List of countries that are experiencing a dramatic drop in the average number of Indonesia children born per woman from the early 1980s to early 2000s Brazil China Mexico Russia Thailand Tunisia Turkey Mortality the technical term for death Immigration refers to the number of people who enter and settle in a country From 2000 2010 in the U S the most rapid regional growth was in the South and where they are not native West the most populous states are California Texas New York Florida Illinois per square mile in each state Top 5 by density District of Columbia DC New Jersey Puerto Rico Rhode Island Massachusetts Another way to look at population by density the average number of residents The least densely populated state Alaska Fertility Rates are plummeting Globally the average life span has jumped from 49 5 years to 63 years High unemployment and poor economies have been shown to have direct impact on fertility rates in industrialized countries Ex During the Great Depression the U S had low fertility rates The U S had birthrate increases sharply after WW2 Known as the baby boom 3 9 million babies were born A documented trend is a DECREASE in teen pregnancies Since 1990 the U S rate has dropped by almost 10 Population growth The median age is 37 years old There are 16 million college students in the U S Exam 2 Review Chapter 8 14 There are more females than males however the ratio varies by age groups in the younger years there are more males than females Minority groups are the fastest growing segment of the U S population On average minority populations are younger than other Americans have higher birthrates and their numbers are increasing owing to immigration Race categories on the census include White Latino Hispanic Black African American American Indians Alaskan Natives Asians Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander Other Georgia Florida Texas California New York About 17 of Native American firms are in the service sector including casinos Hispanics Latinos are the fastest growing minority group in the U S Majority live in Arizona New Mexico Florida Texas and California 1 3 of blacks live in one of the following five states Asian Americans constitute 3 4 of the nation s population They place a high emphasis on parent child relationships and practice filial piety respect for elders and having a moral duty to obey honor and assist parents They are the most highly educated Mobility Household The number of households is increasing in the U S but the number of persons per household is decreasing One reason for the decline in household size Lower fertility rates Male headed households are the fastest growing type of household Change means to cause to be different to alter or to transform Two types Internal Change originates within the family Ex births marriages divorces deaths External Change fostered by society or the outer environment Ex tornados recessions Adaptability the ability to cope with change It is an example of a human resource that everyone has but in different quantities Because of personality behavioral and situational factors each person approaches change differently Exam 2 Review Chapter 8 14 Mobility the technical term for changing residences About one of six adults changes addresses every year Those in childbearing ages once in every three years Typical householder moves every 5 6 years Mobility affects finances Moving is usually a stressor Children may have to change schools due to a move parents changing a job Moving affects individual or family morale can be positive or negative Spiraling fatalism depression actuation Dual Income Dual Earner Households both spouses had income producing jobs Number continues to rise today In the course of a lifetime U S women are employed 12 years fewer than the number of years men are employed Many two earner families need both the incomes to maintain a minimum standard of living Dual earner families report being happier They are also better educated more mobile better spenders They have less leisure time and less time for children and friends Dual Career both spouses work

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FSU HME 4221 - Exam 2 Review

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