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HME 4221 - Exam 1 Study GuideChapter 1 Key Terms:• Choice – The act of selecting among alternatives. • Clarification – The process of making clear, making easier to understand, or elaborating.• Decision Making – Choosing between two or more alternatives.• Family – A group of two or more (one of whom is a householder) who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption and reside together. • Feedback – Information that returns to the system. o Was the problem solved?o What was learned?o Which decisions or plans worked and which ones failed?o What adjustments should have been made?• Goals – End results that require action; the purpose toward which much behavior is directed.• Happiness – The degree to which one judges the overall quality of his or her life as favorable.• Household(er) – All persons who occupy a housing unit such as a house, apartment, or single room. (Householder is the person or persons who owns or rents the home).• Implementing – Putting decisions or plans into action.• Life Management – All decisions a person or family makes and the way their values, goals, and resource use affects their decision making, includes all the goals, events, situations, and decisions that constitute a lifestyle.• Lifestyle – The characteristic way or pattern in which an individual conducts his or her life• Management – The process of using resources to achieve goals. It involves thinking, action, and results.• Management Process – The procedures involved in management – thinking, action, and results.• Management Style – A characteristic way of making decisions and acting.• Management Tools – Measuring devices, techniques, or instruments that are used to arrive at decisions and plans of action. • Needs – Things that are required or necessary. • Planning – A series of decisions leading to action or to needs and goal fulfillment.• Problems – Questions, dilemmas, or situations that need solving.• Resources – Whatever is available to be used.• Risk – The possibility of pain, suffering, danger, harm, or loss from a decision; uncertainty.• Self-monitoring – Individuals noticing and altering their own actions, language, and reactions based on people around them includes being attuned to other before speaking or reacting.• Standards – The quantitative and/or qualitative criteria reconciling resources with demands.• Values – Principles that guide behavior.• Wants – Things that are desired or wished for.• Psychology – Focuses on how the individual thinks and behaves• Sociology – Focuses on the collective behavior of social groups. Chapter 2 Key Terms:• Systems Theory – A theory that emphasizes the interconnectedness and the interactions among different systems. It focuses on the behavior of feedback and its complexity.• Subsystem – A part of a larger system.• Inputs – Whatever is brought into the system.• Throughputs – The processing of inputs or transformations.• Outputs – End results or products, leftovers, and waste.• System – An integrated set of parts that function together for some end purpose or result.• Entropy – A tendency toward disorder or randomness. • Equifinality – The phenomenon in which different circumstances and opportunities may lead to similar outcomes.• Multifinality – The phenomenon in which the same initial circumstances or conditions may lead to different conclusions or outcomes.• Ecology – The study of how living things relate to their natural environment.• Human Ecology – The study of how humans interact with their environment.• Optimization – Process of obtaining the best result.• Work Simplification – Work methods at home that became an integral part of the study of management.Chapter 3 Key Terms:• Values – Principles that guide behavior.• Value Orientation – An internally integrated value system.• Behavior – What people actually do, how they act.• Attitudes – Concepts that may express values, serve as a means of evaluation, or demonstrate feeling in regard to some idea, person, object, event, situation, or relationship.• Absolute Values – Extreme, definitive values that are inflexible.• Relative Values – Values that are interpreted based on context.• Intrinsic Values – Values classified as ends in themselves, having internal meanings.• Extrinsic Values – Values that derive their worth or meaning from someone or something else.Chapter 4 Key Terms:• Resourcefulness – The ability to recognize and use resources effectively.• Resource – Any entity, tangible or intangible, that contributes to the ability of an individual or family to produce valued outputs.• Intangible Resources – Resources incapable of being touched, unseen. (Ex: intelligence).• Tangible Resources – Resources that are real, touchable, or capable of being appraised.• Human Capital – The sum total of human resources; all the capabilities, traits, and other resources that people use to achieve goals.• Scarcity – A shortage or insufficient amount of supply.• Opportunity Cost – The highest valued alternative that must be sacrificed to satisfy a want or attain something.• Culture – The sum of all socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, expectations, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought characteristic of a group, community, or population. • Utility – Value, work, applicability, productiveness, or, simply usefulness of a resource.• Resource-Advantage Theory – Applies entrepreneurship and leveraging to resource management.Chapter 5 Key Terms:• Decisions – Conclusions or judgments about some issues or matters.• Decision Making – The process of making a choice between two or more alternatives, an integral part of the overall management process.• Decision Making Style – The characteristic way that a person makes his or her decisions. • Decision Plan – A long, complicated decision process that includes a sequence of intentions. • Reference Groups – The people who influence an individual or provide guidance or advice.• Decision Rules – Principles that guide decision-making.• Peter Principle – Idea or concept that people are promoted beyond their level of competence. • Decidophobia – The fear of making decisions.• Problem Solving – Making many decisions that lead to a resolution of the problem.• Hatching – Local area nesting,

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FSU HME 4221 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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