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FSU ECO 2023 - CH1 THE ECONOMIC APPROACH

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A. Scarcity and poverty NOT THE SAME THING, absence of poverty implies that some basic level of need has been met. an absence of scarcity implies that our desire for goods are fully satisfied. We might someday(prob not) eliminate poverty, but never eliminate scarcityII. 8 guide posts of economic thinking very importantA. First Point1. The use of scarce resources are costly, so decision makers must make trade offa) no free lunch principle, even though u may be eating a free lunch in you trading off maybe spending time with your kids or even napping etc.2. Individuals choose purposefully they try to get the most from their limited resourcesa) called economizing behavior result of purposeful ration decision making for example choice b.w mc donalds, fancy steak dinner @ shulas, or chilis food, if benefits are equal between the 3 unlikely but for this example than youd choose the cheapest optionb) utility- the benefit or satisfaction that an individual expects from a choice of a specific alternative3. Incentives matter. The likelihood of people choosing an option increases as personal benefits rise and personal costs declinea) most important called the *postulate of all economicsb) rather walk down well lit sidewalk than dark alleyc) thats why people put those security signs in the yard “protected by ADT” etc.4. Economic reasoning focuses on the impact of marginal changes because it is the marginal benefits and marginal costs that influence choicesa) all decisions at the margin know diff. b/w margin and averageb) best example is fast food the decision whether to get a $1.50 soda and $1.00 burger or the $3.00 combo that comes with fries, soda, and burger. The decision whether to get the combo or them separate is the margin. for the extra 50 cents is it worth paying the extra for the fry. you might be hungry enough to eat both, but if the frys arent worth that 50 cents you wont purchase the combo that is the margin how much the ADDITIONAL unit costs not the average price of all units!5. Because information is scarce, uncertainty is a fact of lifea) for example when buying new pair of shoes you might compare prices b.w the internet and maybe foot locker and then decide hardly no research, BUT when buying a new car will go to a bunch of dealers and read consumer reports etc. because information is costly to acquire (you could be doing other things like making money) there will always be some degree of uncertainty you did not go to every dealership in the US and europe just doesnt make sense at a certain point6. In addition to their direct impact, economic changes often generate secondary effectsa) secondary effects! best example for the ladies is when you with your gfs and drink a whole bottle of wine probably have an awesome conversation and be all happy, but the next morning wake up with a massive headache, same applies to guys and beer the initial effects of feeling warm and buzzed and secondary effects of waking up next morning feeling like death7. The value of a good or service is subjective and varies with individual preferences and circumstancesa) example justin beiber tickets you could not pay me to go to his show, but 99% of girls in our class would pay 50+$$$8. The test of economic theory is its ability to predict and explain events in the real worlda) if the events in the real world are consistent with a theory we say that the theory has predictive value and is therefore valid!B. Positive versus Normative Economic Thinking: Positive statements: Can be PROVED either true or false. Example: if you make more money your income will increase; whereas normative statements reflect values that are SUBJECTIVE example: the inflation rate should be higherC. THINGS TO AVOID IN ECONOMIC THINKING 1)Violation of Ceteris Paribus: Latin term meaning other things constant. When describing the effect of a change, the outcome may be influenced by changes in other things.D. PRACTICE WITH THE ECONOMIC PITFALLSE. #1“As your next President, I plan to reduce drug use among college students by spending more money to apprehend drug-pushers.”Good intentions do not guarantee good outcomes.Economic science is positive: it attempts to explain the consequences of WHAT IS. whereas normative economics goes farther to apply judgement to what OUGHT TO BEIII. Adam Smith 1776 origin of economics An inquiry into the nature and causes of wealth by nationsIV. REVIEW what drives human behavior? SCARCITYCH 2 SOME TOOLS OR THE ECONOMISTA. Opportunity Cost : the highest valued sacrificed in order to to choose an option1. example lebron james out of highschool was offered $13 million dollar contract out of highschool. he choose to take the 13 million dollars over a 4 year college education.B. Trade Creates Value1. mutual gain is the foundation of trade (everyone is happy); when two parties exchange they are BOTH made better off; because it channels goods to those who value them most!a) example: I textbook on organic chemistry would do us no good for this exam, but if I traded the organic book to an organic student in exchange for a micro book we are both happy! instead of both us having books we dnt care bout or need!C. Law of comparative advantage: the proposition that the joint output of trading partners will be greatest when each good is produced by the low opportunity cost producer. *** if one person has comparative adv in wheat other MUST HAVE comparative adv, in opp. thing corn.Transaction Costs: time, effort, and other resources needed to search out and negotiate and complete exchangeD. best example!::: it is eleven o clock on a tuesday night and you havent eaten since lunch, you have no problem paying the $5 for the footlong of the month at subway, BUT you feel it is just not worth the effort of getting dressed and driving to subway: these costs of time and effort are TRANSACTION COSTSE. How do property rights protect “intellectual” ideas like inventions or ideas?1. patents and copyrightsF. Private Property rights involve 3 things1. right to EXCLUSIVE use of the property (no one else can use)2. legal protection against those who try and use your private property3. the right to sell or transfer the property to another private owner!V. Production Possibility CurveA. What does it tell us? What are the x and y axis? the slope?1. The maximum amount of any two products that can be produced from a fixed set of resources, and the possible trade-offs in production between them. slope indicates the amount of


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