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ISM QUIZ 2CHATPER 3: DATABASES AND DATA WAREHOUSES1. Data is everywhere à Stored in databases à What are the risks?- Risk of theft. Hackers can get information and sell it to someone else -Wardriving- driving around looking for unsecured wireless networks being used by retailers- sniffer programs- captured credit and debit card numbers as they moved through a retailer’s processing computers then tried to sell the data overseas 2. A database is a logical structure à structured determined by the information stored in the database- Database- a collection of information organized in a logical structure3. Most popular type of database?- Product information- stored by item number- Customer information- stored by customer ID- Sales information- stored by sales ID - Relational database- most popular; consists of 2 or more tables; tables have a relationship with one another4. Understand the parts of a relational database– Tables- customer, product type, employee, order, driver– Rows and records– Columns and fields– Primary keys- uniquely describes a row in a table– Foreign keys- primary key in another table that links two tables; exists as a primary key in a different table – Data type- number, character, date, time, currency, something you can do a mathematical calculation on= a number5. What is the purpose of the data dictionary?- Data dictionary- defines the structure of a relational database; structure of the tables6. What are the parts of a DBMS?-Database Management system:1. DBMS engine- accepts logical requests from the various other DBMS subsystems, converts them into their physical equivalent, and actually accesses the database and data dictionary as they exist on a storage device.2. Data definition subsystem- helps you create and maintain the data dictionary and define the structure of the files in a database 3. Data manipulation subsystem-helps you add, change, and delete information in a database and query it for valuable information; allows you to specify your logical information requirements.4. Application generation subsystem- contains facilities to help you develop transaction- intensive applications. These applications usually require that you perform a detailed series of tasks to process a transaction; menus, reports, user interaction 5. Data administration subsystem- helps you manage the overall database environment by providing facilities for backup and recovery, security management, query optimization, concurrency control, and change management.7. How is a data warehouse different from a database?- database- a collection of information that you organize and access according to the logical structure of that information; used for transactional processes - data warehouse- a logical collection of information- gathered from many different operational databases- used to create business intelligence that supports business analysis activities and decision making tasks; pulls together data from multiple database, internal and external, multi dimensional( rows + columns + layers), want to understand patters and trends8. What are data warehouses used for?- They exist to support decision making tasks in your organization, support only online analytical processing9. What is data mining?- data mining- the process of querying a data warehouse to extract meaningful information, to get information to use in business decision making, to get insights from data that are otherwise not obvious; business analytics- Data warehouse-> data warehouse engine (software that runs it)-> + query and reporting tools + intelligent agents (picks out info that people wouldn’t normally pick out) + multi dimensional analysis tools( techniques that allow you to view multi dimensional information from different perspectives) + statistical tools (help you apply various mathematical models to the information stored in a data warehouse to discover new information)10. Why do organizations keep data? à Business intelligence- The more data, the more time, the richer the information- It’s the collective information about customers, competitors, business partners, competitive environment, your internal operations- It is used to make strategic business decisions11. Why is the quality of data in a database important?1. Who owns the information?- sometimes people must pay for the information2. Who is responsible for its quality and accuracy?- garbage in, garbage out; some organizations have a person who is responsible for the data; don’t duplicate- same piece of information stored in different places can give it a different meaning3. Who is responsible for keeping it secure?- biggest threat is an internal threat, people inside the company messing up the data, employees have access to a lot of data; someone who gets fired or not logging out of the computer Extra Vocabulary: Business Intelligence- collective information about your customers, your competitors, your business partners, your competitive environment, and your own internal operations that gives you the ability to make effective, important, and often strategic business decisions. Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) - gathering of input information, processing that information, and updating existing information to reflect the gathered and processed information.Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) - the manipulation of information to support decision making Integrity constraints- rules that help ensure that quality of the informationPhysical view- deals with how information is physically arranged, stored and accessed on some type of storage device. Logical view- focuses on how you as a knowledge worker need to arrange and access information to meet your particular business needs. View- allows you to see the contents of a database file, make whatever changes you want, perform simple sorting, and query to find the location of specific information.Report generators- help you quickly define formats of reports and what information you want to see in a report; once you define a report you can view it on a screen or print itQuery by example (QBE)-helps you graphically design the answer to a question. You identify the files in which the needed information is located, drag any necessary

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