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19th Cenutry Europe Final Exam Victoria Albert Queen of England and her husband he wasn t king because he could not have been higher in title status than her Symbols of middle class values in the Victorian Era Hegemony of middle class values consent to their ideas Creed individual effort and enterprise earnestness here to do your duty on earth respectability clean sober thrifty The Great Crystal Palace Exhibition International exhibition in Hyde Park London in 1851 First in a series of World s Fair exhibitions of culture and industry to become popular Organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert husband of Queen Victoria Attended by numerous notable figures Made of glass and iron Themes of patriotism and celebration of modern industrial technology and design Prime motive Great Britain to make clear its role as a world industrial leader and sought to prove its superiority Contagious Diseases Acts 1864 1866 1869 prostitutes necessary aspect of society Fear of leading to disease Passed by the Parliament of the U K Allowed police officers to arrest prostitutes in certain ports and army towns and the women were then subjected to compulsory checks for venereal disease If the woman was declared infect she was confined in what was known as a Lock Hospital until cured Justified as most effective method to shield men from venereal disease No provision made for examination of prostitutes clientele double standard Samuel Smiles Self Help 1859 argued for individual effort and enterprise Knowledge one of highest enjoyments Every human great mission to perform noble faculties to cultivate vast density to accomplish Should have means of education and of exerting freely all the powers of his godlike nature The bible of mid Victorian liberalism William Gladstone 1809 1898 Scott from merchant classes Christian religiosity reform intervene in world Rescue work with prostitutes Became member of British Parliament in 1833 1860s leader of Liberal Party Working class respectability and agitation for suffrage Supporter of the Second Reform Bill Became Prime Minister 1874 end of patronage govt careers open to talent Ballot Act 1872 introduced requirement that parliamentary and local govt elections in the U K be held by secret ballot Elementary Education Act 1870 set framework for schooling of all children between ages 5 12 Reform Bill of 1867 enfranchised urban male working class in England and Wales Doubled number of adult males that could vote Little distribution of seats intended to help Conservative Party Supported by Gladstone Giuseppe Mazzini Beating Heart of Italy Revolutionary republican nationalist Active in Carbonari secret revolutionary societies Founds Young Italy 1831 movement to create a united Italian republic through promoting a general insurrection in the Italian reactionary states and in the lands occupied by the Austrian Empire Belief popular uprising would create a unified Italy Helped define modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state Activist for unification of Italy efforts helped bring about the independent and unified Italy in place of the several separate states many dominated by foreign powers that existed until the 19th century 1 19th Cenutry Europe Final Exam Crimean War conflict between Russian Empire and alliance of the French British and Ottoman Empires and the Kingdom of Sardinia Part of a long running contest between major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire Logistical and tactical errors during the land campaign on both sides Sometimes considered to be one of the first modern wars as it introduced technical changes which affected the future course of warfare The Concert of Europe after 1849 Congress System reasserted against aggressive war No state acquire territories without consent of others Stabilize international order Problems Louis Napoleon Napoleon III r 1852 1870 Interventions Realism in foreign policy guns butter Origins Ottoman Empire as Sick Man of Europe power vacuum Pilgrimage sites Catholics Orthodox Armenians Copts 1847 Catholic silver star removed in Bethlehem 1852 French naval threat to Ottoman Empire 1853 Russian occupation of Moldavia Wallachia Oct 1853 Ottoman Empire Declares war on Russia Mar 1854 England and France declare war on Russia Course of the War siege of Sebastopol High rates of disease Fall of Sevastopol 1855 Treaty of Paris 1856 Russia out of Moldavia Wallachia Romania Russia gives up claims to protect Orthodox in Ottoman Empire Consequences Concert of Europe dead Russian Austrian enmity French aggression successful After Austria threatened to join the allies Russia accepted the preliminary peace terms which were formalized at the Congress of Paris Ottoman Empire state found by Turkish tribes became empire with conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453 Reached its peak at 1590 covering parts of Asia Europe and Africa Called sick man of Europe in mid 19th century experienced a time of economic difficulty impoverishment Affected by rise of nationalism forced to deal within and beyond its borders Number of revolutionary political parties rose uprisings had far reaching consequences Directly affected by Russian imperialism Tried to catch up to the western world by passing political and administrative reformations Piedmont Sardinia Italy after 1849 Kingdom became founding state of the new Kingdom of Italy annexing all other Italian states King Victor Emmanuel II Lombardy Venetia Tuscany Parma Modena Papal States Pius IX Kingdom of Two Sicily s Naples King Ferdinand II North south disparity Plotting war Austrian draft in Lombardy Venetia 1858 Piedmont offers refuge to draft dodgers 1858 Napoleon s cold feet Austrian ultimatum demanding Piedmont demobilize April 1859 Austria declares war on Piedmont Sardinia France joins war against Austria War Battles of Magenta Solferino 1859 Nationalist revolutions in Tuscany Parma Modena Romagna Napoleon s preemptive peace with Austria July 1859 Jan 1860 Tuscany Parma Modena Romagna Piedmont Sardinia Nice Savoy France Camillo di Cavour Prime Minister 1852 1861 moderate liberal political realist industrialization and free trade Crimean intervention Liberal ministry Kingdom became engine driving Italian Unification Giuseppe Garibaldi 1807 1882 Italian general and politician Considered one of Italy s fathers of the fatherland Central figure in Italian Risorgimento personally commanded and 2 19th Cenutry Europe Final Exam fought in many

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FSU EUH 3205 - 19th Cenutry Europe Final Exam

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