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19th Cenutry Europe Final ExamVictoria & Albert: Queen of England and her husband – he wasn’t king because he could not have been higher in title/status than her. Symbols of middle class values in the Victorian Era. Hegemony of middle class values – consent to their ideas. Creed: individual effort and enterprise, earnestness (here to do your duty on earth), respectability (clean, sober, thrifty).The Great/Crystal Palace Exhibition: International exhibition in Hyde Park, London in 1851. First in a series of World’s Fair exhibitions of culture and industry to become popular. Organized by Henry Cole and Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria. Attended by numerous notable figures. Made of glass and iron. Themes of patriotism and celebration of modern industrial technology and design. Prime motive – Great Britain to make clear its role as a world industrial leader and sought to prove its superiority.Contagious Diseases Acts (1864, 1866, 1869): prostitutes necessary aspect of society. Fear of leading to disease. Passed by the Parliament of the U.K. Allowed police officers to arrest prostitutes in certain ports and army towns, and the women were then subjected to compulsory checks for venereal disease. If the woman was declared infect, she was confined in what was known as a “Lock Hospital” until “cured.” Justified as most effective method to shield men from venereal disease. No provision made for examination of prostitutes’ clientele – double standard.Samuel Smiles: Self Help (1859) – argued for individual effort and enterprise. Knowledge one of highest enjoyments. Every human great mission to perform, noble faculties to cultivate, vast density to accomplish. “Should have means of education and of exerting freely all the powers of his godlike nature.” “The bible of mid-Victorian liberalism.”William Gladstone (1809-1898): Scott from merchant classes. Christian religiosity  reform: intervene in world. “Rescue work” with prostitutes. Became member of British Parliament in 1833. 1860s leader of “Liberal Party.” Working class respectability and agitation for suffrage. Supporter of the Second Reform Bill. Became Prime Minister 1874 – end of patronage, govt careers open to talent. Ballot Act (1872) – introduced requirement that parliamentary and local govt elections in the U.K. be held by secret ballot. Elementary Education Act (1870) – set framework for schooling of all children between ages 5-12.Reform Bill of 1867: enfranchised urban male working class in England and Wales. Doubled number of adult males that could vote. Little distribution of seats – intended to help Conservative Party. Supported by Gladstone.Giuseppe Mazzini: (“Beating Heart of Italy”) Revolutionary republican nationalist. Active in Carbonari (secret revolutionary societies). Founds Young Italy (1831) – movement to create a united Italian republic through promoting a general insurrection in the Italian reactionary states and in the lands occupied by the Austrian Empire. Belief – popular uprising would create a unified Italy. Helped define modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state. Activist for unification of Italy – efforts helped bring about the independent and unified Italy in place of the several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers, that existed until the 19th century.119th Cenutry Europe Final ExamCrimean War: conflict between Russian Empire and alliance of the French, British, and Ottoman Empires and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Part of a long-running contest between major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire. Logistical and tactical errors during the land campaign on both sides. Sometimes considered to be one of the first “modern” wars as it introduced technical changes which affected the future course of warfare.• The Concert of Europe after 1849: Congress System reasserted: against aggressive war. No state acquire territories without consent of others. Stabilize international order. Problems: Louis Napoleon  Napoleon III (r. 1852-1870). Interventions. “Realism” in foreign policy (“guns & butter”).• Origins: Ottoman Empire as “Sick Man of Europe” – power vacuum. Pilgrimage sites: Catholics, Orthodox, Armenians, Copts. 1847- Catholic silver star removed in Bethlehem. 1852: French naval threat to Ottoman Empire. 1853: Russian occupation of Moldavia & Wallachia. Oct. 1853: Ottoman Empire Declares war on Russia. Mar. 1854: England and France declare war on Russia.• Course of the War: siege of Sebastopol. High rates of disease. Fall of Sevastopol 1855. Treaty of Paris (1856). Russia out of Moldavia & Wallachia  Romania. Russia gives up claims to protect Orthodox in Ottoman Empire.• Consequences: Concert of Europe dead. Russian-Austrian enmity. French aggression successful. After Austria threatened to join the allies, Russia accepted the preliminary peace terms, which were formalized at the Congress of Paris.Ottoman Empire: state found by Turkish tribes – became empire with conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed II in 1453. Reached its peak at 1590, covering parts of Asia, Europe, and Africa. Called “sick man of Europe” in mid-19th century –experienced a time of economic difficulty/impoverishment. Affected by rise of nationalism: forced to deal within and beyond its borders. Number of revolutionary political parties rose  uprisings had far-reaching consequences. Directly affected by Russian imperialism. Tried to catch up to the western world by passing political and administrative reformations.Piedmont-Sardinia: Italy after 1849: Kingdom became founding state of the new Kingdom of Italy, annexing all other Italian states. King Victor Emmanuel II. Lombardy & Venetia. Tuscany, Parma, Modena. Papal States (Pius IX). Kingdom of Two Sicily’s (Naples – King Ferdinand II). North-south disparity. Plotting war:• Austrian “draft” in Lombardy & Venetia (1858). Piedmont offers refuge to draft dodgers (1858). Napoleon’s cold feet. Austrian ultimatum demanding Piedmont demobilize (April, 1859)  Austria declares war on Piedmont-Sardinia. France joins war against Austria.• War: Battles of Magenta & Solferino (1859). Nationalist revolutions in Tuscany, Parma, Modena, Romagna. Napoleon’s preemptive peace with Austria (July 1859). Jan 1860: Tuscany, Parma, Modena, & Romagna  Piedmont-Sardinia. Nice & Savoy  France.Camillo di

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