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PSYCH 092 – DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYTEST #1 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS 1 through 6DEVELOPMENTAL SCIENCE–understanding constancy and change throughout the lifespanInvestigators share a single goal: to identify THOSE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE CONSISTENCIES AND TRANSFORMATIONS IN PEOPLE FROM CONCEPTION THROUGH DEATH Developmental science is INTERDISCIPLINARY New evidence suggests that PEOPLE NOT ONLY ARE AFFECTED BY BUT ALSO CONTRIBUTE TO THE CONTEXTS IN WHICH THEY DEVELOP Age-graded influence – GETTING DRIVER’S LICENSE HISTORY-GRADED influences – Affect people born in a particular era (Baby Boomers) Influences that are irregular and do not follow a predictable timetable = NON-NORMATIVEFirst successful intelligence tests developed to IDENTIFY CHILDREN WITH LEARNING PROBLEMS WHO NEEDED TO BE PLACED IN SPECIAL CLASSES ADAPTATION – central to Piaget’s theoryObservations of imprinting led to major concept of THE CRITICIAL PERIOD in human development Lev Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as a SOCIALLY MEDIATED process Ecological systems theory views the person as DEVELOPING WITHIN A COMPLEX SYSTEM OF RELATIONSHIPS AFFECTED BY MULTIPLE LEVELS OF THE SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENTPHENOTYPES – directly observable characteristics (example – blue eyes) If the twenty-third pair of chromosomes is XY, baby is MALE If the twenty-third pair of chromosomes is XX, baby is FEMALE Of all Western nations, the UNITED STATES has the highest percentage of extremely poor children The U.S. is more INDIVIDUALISTIC than most Western European countries, which place greater weight on COLLECTIVISM The question of how much heredity and environment each contribute to differencesamong people is UNANSWERABLE Heredity estimates are LIKELY TO EXAGGERATE THE ROLE OF HEREDITYDevelopment is best understood as A SERIES OF COMPLEX EXCHANGES BETWEEN NATURE AND NURTURE The term TERATOGEN refers to ANY ENVIRONMENTAL AGENT THAT CAUSES DAMAGE DURING THE PRENATAL PERIOD The longest stage of labor is DILATION AND EFFACEMENT OF THE CERVIXNatural urge to squeeze and push during the SECOND stage of labor During the third stage of labor, THE PLACENTA IS DELIVERED Apgar score of 5 – Baby NEEDS ASSISTANCE IN ESTABLISHING BREATHING AND OTHER VITAL SIGNS Before the late 1800s, childbirth usually took place AT HOME AND WAS A FAMILY-CENTERED EVENT MEDICAL CONTROL OVER CHILDBIRTH is largely responsible for the worldwide rise in cesarean deliveries Young infants usually cry BECAUSE OF PHYSICAL NEEDSSense of smell HELPS MOTHERS AND BABIES IDENTIFY EACH OTHER VISION is the least-developed of the newborn baby’s senses “Baby fat” HELPS MAINTAIN A CONSTANT BODY TEMPERATURE As neurons form connections, stimulation BECOMES VITAL TO THEIR SURVIVAL The PREFRONTAL CORTEX is among the last regions to attain adult levels of synaptic connections Brain growth is especially dramatic during THE FIRST YEAR when the brain more than doubles in size The prefrontal cortex UNDERGOES ESPECIALLY RAPID GROWTH DURING THE PRESCHOOL AND SCHOOL YEARS PARENT-INFANT COSLEEPING is the norm for approximately 90 percent of the world’s population The World Health Organization recommends breastfeeding until age 2 YEARS, with solid foods added at 6 MONTHS Most chubby babies THIN OUT DURING TODDLERHOOD AND EARLY CHILDHOOD According to cognitive-developmental theory, a scheme is AN ORGANIZED WAY OF MAKING SENSE OF EXPERIENCE According to Piaget, adaptation involves BUILDING SCHEMES THROUGH DIRECT INTERACTION WITH THE ENVIRONMENT Follow-up research on Piaget’s sensorimotor stage yields broad agreement that VARIOUS ASPECTS OF INFANT COGNITION CHANGE UNEVENLY The conscious, reflective part of our mental system is the CENTRAL-EXECUTIVEVygotskian concept of zone of proximal development refers to A RANGE OF TASKS THAT THE CHILD CANNOT YET HANDLE ALONE BUT CAN DO WITH THE HELP OF MORE SKILLED PARTNERS TALKING TO INFANTS AND TODDLERS contributes strongly to early language progress According to Noam Chomsky, all children have a LANGUAGE ACQUISITION device that contains a universal grammarCHILDHOOD IS A SENSITIVE PERIOD FOR LANGUAGE ACQUISITION When using the word “puppy” only to refer to the family dog is an example of UNDEREXTENSION Alice calls untying her shoelaces “opening” her shoes. This is an example of OVEREXTENSIONAt all ages, COMPREHENSION develops ahead of PRODUCTION According to Erikson, a healthy outcome during infancy depends on the QUALITY OF CAREGIVING When parents are over- or under-controlling, the outcome is a child who FEELS FORCED AND SHAMEDEmotions PLAY A POWERFUL ROLE IN DISCOVERY OF THE SELF Basic emotions ARE UNIVERSAL IN HUMANSFrom 4 to 6 months into the second year, angry expressions INCREASE IN BOTHFREQUENCY AND INTENSITYInfants’ emotional expressions are CLOSELY TIED TO THEIR ABILITY TO INTERPRET THE EMOTIONAL CUES OF OTHERS Besides self-awareness, self-conscious emotions require ADULT INSTRUCTION IN WHEN TO FEEL PROUD, ASHAMED, OR GUILTYEffortful control is CONSIDERED A MAJOR DIMENSION OF TEMPERAMENT REACTIVITY refers to quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity About half of individual differences in temperament have been attributed to GENETIC MAKEUP GOODNESS OF FIT involves creating a child-rearing environment that recognizeseach child’s temperament while simultaneously encouraging more adaptive

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