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PSYCH 092 – DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGYTEST #3 – STUDY GUIDECHAPTERS 13-19- Physical changes of the adult years are MULTIDIMENSIONAL AND MULTIDIRECTIONAL- Rather than inheriting longevity directly, people probably inherit risk and protective factors that influence their chances of dying earlier or later- From 1970 to 2014, the birthrate INCREASED SIXFOLD FOR WOMEN IN THEIR THIRTIES - Alcohol dependency is more likely in cultures where alcohol is CAREFULLY CONTROLLED AND A SIGN OF ADULTHOOD- Sexual partners, whether dating, cohabiting, or married, tend to be similar in AGE, EDUCATION AND ETHNICITY - AS NUMBER OF SEX PARTNERS INCREASES, SEXUAL SATISFACTION DECLINES SHARPLY- NEARLY THREE-FOURTHS of Millennials approve of legalized same-sex marriage - One in every FOUR individuals is likely to contract asexually transmitted infection at some point in life - The majority of victims of rape or other forms of sexual coercion are UNDER AGE 25, and the perpetrators are usually MEN THEY KNOW WELL- PEOPLE OF ALL SES AND ETHNIC GROUPS ARE OFFENDERS AND VICTIMS with respect to sexual coercion - WHEN MEN ARE TAUGHT TO BE DOMINANT, COMPETITIVE, AND AGGRESSIVE, THE THEMES OF RAPE ARE REINFORCED- DEFINITIONS FOR RAPE AND SEXUAL COERCION SHOULD BE GENDER-NEUTRAL- In early adulthood, YOUNG ADULTS MORE OFTEN REPORT DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS THAN MIDDLE-AGED PEOPLE- THINKING BECOMES INCREASINGLY RATIONAL AND FLEXIBLE in the postformal thought period- EMERGING ADULTHOOD FAILS TO DESCRIBETHE EXPERIENCE OF MOST OF THE WORLD’SYOUTH- Erikson – the psychological conflict of early adulthood is INTIMACY VERSUS ISOLATION- Stress tends to be greatest DURING TRANSITIONS BETWEEN PHASES in the family life cycle- Young adults living at home in the U.S. today ARE FINANCIALLY DEPENDENT ON THEIR PARENTS- SLIGHTLY OVER HALF of U.S. 18- to 25-year-olds return to their parents’ home for brief periods after first leaving- 49 percent of U.S. adults LIVE TOGETHER AS MARRIED COUPLES- AGE AT MARRIAGE is the most consistent predictor of marital stability- Gender roles of husband and wife usually BECOME MORE TRADITIONAL- The arrival of a baby DOES NOT CAUSE SIGNIFICANT MARITAL STRAIN- More people seek family therapy while parenting ADOLESCENTS than during any other phase of the family life cycle- The rate of never-married Americans aged 25 and older has MORE THAN DOUBLED since 1960- RISING AGE AT MARRIAGE IS LINKED TO GREATER MARITAL SATISFACTION, and divorce rates have declined over the past two decades- Most divorces occur WITHIN THE FIRST SEVEN YEARS OF MARRIAGE- INFIDELITY AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE ARE AMONG THE STRONGEST PREDICTORS OF DIVORCE- On average, people REMARRY within four years of divorce- On average, people in their twenties experience THREE TO FOUR job changes- Gender differences in career development – MANY WOMEN ENTER AND EXIT THE LABOR MARKET SEVERAL TIMES, UNLIKE THE CONTINUOUS CAREER LIVES OF MOST MEN- Pattern of a HARDY individual – most experiences are controllable; change is viewed as a normal part oflife and a chance for personal growth- High-hardy individuals are likely to USE ACTIVE, PROBLEM-CENTERED COPING STRATEGIES IN SITUATIONS THEY CAN CONTROL- Crystallized intelligence depends on ACCUMULATED KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE- FLUID intelligence begins to decline in the twenties- Crystallized intelligence INCREASES STEADILY THROUGH MIDDLE ADULTHOOD- In one study, mentally and physically healthy 16- to 85-year-olds showed that verbal IQ began to decline in the EIGHTIES- Middle-aged adults ARE INTELLECTUALLY “IN THEIR PRIME”, not “OVER THE HILL”- PERCEPTUAL SPEED decreases steadily from the twenties on- When people figure out they are no longer as good asthey once were at certain tasks, they accommodate, shifting to activities that depend more on ACCUMULATED KNOWLEDGE- Negative outcome of Erikson’s midlife stage, stagnation, focuses on SELF-INDULGENCE- Midlife crisis – according to Vaillant, evidence of A SLOW AND STEADY CHANGE, rather than a crisis- Possible Selves – ESPECIALLY SRONG MOTIVATOR OF ACTION IN MIDLIFE- A LONGER LIFE EXPECTANCY MEANS THAT ADULT CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS AREINCREASINGLY LIKELY TO GROW OLD TOGETHER- Burnout OCCURS MORE OFTEN IN THE HELPING PROFESSIONS - Many U.S. Baby Boomers say they EXPECT TO DELAY RETIREMENT- Improved nutrition, medical treatment, sanitation, and safety have contributed to the dramatic gains in average LIFE EXPECTANCY in the U.S. in the last 100 years- PROTECTIVE VALUE OF THE EXTRA X CHROMOSOME – female advantage in average life expectancy- Once people pass 75 to 80 years, the contribution of heredity to length of life decreases in favor of environmental factors- COMPRESSION OF MORBIDITY has occurred in industrialized nations- Primary aging: BLURRED VISION FROM MACULAR DEGENERATION- Secondary aging: HEART DISEASE FROM SMOKING CIGARETTES- Frailty LEAVES OLDER PEOPLE HIGHLY VULNERABLE IN THE FACE OF INFECTION, EXTREME TEMPERATURES, OR INJURY- Caregiving of older adults with dementia is SOMETIMES KNOWN AS THE “36-HOUR-DAY”because of its constant demands- DEPRESSION is the disorder most often misdiagnosed as dementia- The more a mental ability depends on FLUID intelligence, the earlier it starts to decline- For most of late adulthood, cognitive declines are GRADUAL- Erikson – final psychological conflict is EGO IDENTITY VERSUS DISPAIR- Joan Erikson, Erik Erikson’s widow, coined an additional stage of psychosocial development called GEROTRANSENDENCE- THIRD AGE – late adulthood- PERSONAL CONTROL – diminishes in late life- FAILED SUICIDES ARE MORE RARE IN OLD AGE THAN IN EARLIER LIFE- Disengagement Theory – DECREASE ACTIVITY LEVELS AND INTERACT LESS FREQUENTLY WITH AGE- Divorce among people age 65 and older has QUADRUPLED over the past three decades- MOST ABUSIVE ACTS of elder abuse occur because THEY TAKE PLACE IN PRIVATE, AND VICTIMS ARE OFTEN UNABLE OR UNWILLING TO COMPLAIN- FINANCIAL ABUSE, EMOTIONAL ABUSE, ANDNEGLECT are the most frequently reported types of elder abuse- The more negative a caregiver-recipient relationship, THE GREATER THE RISK OF ELDER ABUSE OFALL KINDS- Risk factors of elder maltreatment – MANY PERPETRATORS OF ABUSE ARE DEPENDENT, EMOTIONALLY OR FINANCIALLY, ON THEIR VICTIMS- Aging well is FACILITATED BY SOCIETAL CONTEXTS THAT PROMOTE EFFECTIVE PERSON-ENVIRONMENT FIT- Clinical death phase, the HEARTBEAT, CIRCULATION, BREATHING, AND BRAIN FUNCTIONING STOP- THE GREATEST DIGNITY IN DEATH IS IN THE INTEGRITY

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