CSUDH HIS 120 - Umayyad and Abbasid Empires in the Middle East

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Week 14: UmayyadsTerms:Islam- It means also means “submission to the will of God” and was majorreligion based on the teachings of Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7thcentury. They worshiped one god who is called Allah in arabic.Caliph-Religious leader who ruler over a Caliphate and said to be the successor ofprophet muhhamadCaliphate-political-religious state comprising the Muslim community and the landsand peoples under its control in the centuries following the death of MuhammadConquests-Subjugation and assumption of control of a place or people by use ofmilitary force.The early Muslim conquests, also referred to as the Arab conquestsand the early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the7th century.Umayyads-The first Muslim dynasty that was established in 661 in Damascus.thepopulation had Muslim and Arabs.Abbasids-Overthrew the umayyads caliphs in 750 which was known as theAbbasid Revolution are are the descendants of muhhamads uncleBaghdad-also knows as the city of peace was the capital of Abbasids dynastylocated in Iraq at the banks of the Tigris river and was built during the sign of Leoin 762.Thanks to its trade routes the city became a place of learning and tradeand known as the golden age of islam.Al-Aqsa Mosque-Al-Aqas means “the farthest” and is significant because muslimsturned towards al-Aqsa and prayed up to 16 or 17 months after migration toMedina in 624.Mongol Sack of Baghdad-A siege of the Mongols which lasted 13 days and whichthe Mongols sacked Baghdad,destroyed places and killed Al-Musta’sim and manyresidents of the city.1. Find maps and describe the extent of Umayyad and Abbasid empires.At its peak, the Umayyad empire controlled most of the Middle East, parts of India,Spain, and parts of North Africa. The following modern day countries are what theUmayyad had control over: Spain, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran,Pakistan and Afghanistan.During the height of the Abbasid empire, they controlled most North Africa, the MiddleEast, and Central Asia. This territory in modern day countries would be Libya, parts ofAlgeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and parts of Kazakhstan.2. Who were the important Caliphs of these empires? What did they do? When didArabic become the official language of the empire? How did Yaqut al-Hamawi(1179-1229), Arab biographer and geographer, describe the city of Baghdad?What was the significance of the city?Abū Sufyan was the patriarch of the Umayyads. Muāwiyah I was the first Umayyadcaliph. Abd al- Malik was an important caliph to the Umayyad empire as he wasresponsible for most of the empires expansion into India and Central Asia.As- Saffāh was the first Abbasid caliph. al- Mamūn overthrew his brother, the previouscaliph, and gained control of the Abbasid empire, then expanded into the Mediterraneanislands. al- Mutawakkil was the last great Abbasid caliphate before the decline of theempire. Arabic became the official language of the empire in the 700s. Yaquat al-Hamawi described the city of Baghdad by saying this : ‘The city of Baghdad formed twovast semi-circles on the right and left banks of the Tigris, twelve miles in diameter. Thenumerous suburbs, covered with parks, gardens, villas, and beautiful promenades, andplentifully supplied with rich bazaars, and finely built mosques and baths, stretched for aconsiderable distance on both sides of the river.’ Baghdad was a significant citybecause it was a connecting point between two important rivers, the Tigris andEuphrates and it made global trade much easier.3.The Abbasid Empire is dubbed by many scholars as the “Golden Age” of Islamiccivilization. Why? What does this mean? Explain using concrete examples.- The Abbasid Empire was known as the “Golden Age” because of itsstability. The economy that they built made it flourish with their technologyand trade. With its trade centers which became wealthy centers because oftheir scholarships and

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CSUDH HIS 120 - Umayyad and Abbasid Empires in the Middle East

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