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Terms to learn:Hinduism: An Indian religion that follows the system of Dharma, Samsara,and mokshaCaste System: A social hierarchy that consisted of Brahmins(priests), Kshatriyas(warriors),Vaisyas(merchants/artisans), and Sudras(laborers/farmers). If you were born in a certain castethen that was your life-long duty.Dharma: A concept in which duty is tied to your caste and if you fulfill Dharma you will be reborninto a higher being.Samsara: An endless cycle of rebirth in which the Soul (Atman) continues to reincarnate in thecaste system.Moksha: Release from samsara which is the ultimate goal of hinduism.Karma:A concept of Hinduism which explains through a system where beneficial effects arederived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions.Four Noble Truths: Set of values in Buddhism that life is suffering, desire is the cause ofsuffering, you must get rid of desire to stop suffering, There is a path away from desire andsuffering.Eight-Fold Path:Buddhism ideals that Right view, right intention, right speech, right action, rightlivelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration are the road to be reborn into ahigher being.Nirvana: Similar to Dharma but you need to follow the Eight-fold Path to be reborn into a higherbeing.Ashoka:Became Emperor of the Mauryan Empire by killing his brothers in the 2-year war ofSuccession but turned into a benevolent man after the war against Kalinga.and dedicated therest of his life trying to apply Buddhist principles to the administration of his vast empire.Mahayana Buddhism: A form of Buddhism that is popular in East Asia, China and foreignrulers. They have a belief in bodhisattva who are enlightened beings who have put off enteringparadise in order to help others attain enlightenment.On Buddhism1. What are the Four Noble Truths?- life is suffering- Desire is the cause to our suffering- Get rid of desire to stop suffering- There is a path away from desire and suffering2. What does Dhamma (aka. Dharma) mean? Why do you think people were attractedto Buddhist teaching during this time in India?- You are duty tied to your original caste system for life but if a person achievesDharma in their lifetime then they will be reborn into a higher caste system. Thiswould attract many of those who didn’t want to remain in the same caste systemfor all of eternity, like peasants.3. What is Nirvana? What should one do to attain Nirvana?- Nirvana is eternal enlightenment. Eightfold path and the Four Noble truths arethe key to attaining Nirvana.4. What is the difference between Mahayana Buddhism and Theravada Buddhism?- The difference is that Mahayana includes the most less conservative practicesand beliefs. Theravada is the oldest and most conservative sector in Buddhismwhen it comes to their kind. Theravada seems the strongest because it’s theoldest; its name was also known for its doctrine and of helping elders. Mahayananickname is Great Vehicle.On Asoka’s Edicts1. Who was Asoka? What was his title? Use the source!- Asoka was India's great emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty of India who ruled from268-232 BC. He was the third ruler of the Mauryan Dynasty. In the passage it isbelieved that he was India's greatest emperor.2. What does edict mean? Asoka’s edicts were written in what language? Where werethese edicts recorded?- An edict was an official order issued by a person in authority, in this case thatperson of authority was Asoka. These edicts were testimonies of India written onrocks and stone pillars. Asoka’s edicts were found scattered all around India,Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan which lead to them being written in manydifferent scripts. Most of them were written in Brahmi script, while those found inthe eastern parts of the subcontinent were in the language Magadhi, which wasprobably the official language of Asoka’s courts. And lastly, those found inwestern parts of India were written in Sanskrit, although one bilingual edict inAfghanistan was written in Armaic and Greek.3. What did Asoka promote in his empire? Use the concrete passages to explain youranswer.- Throughout his remaining years as king, Asoka would promote Buddhism aftertruly discovering it for himself and turning over a new leaf. In the text it states, “He had a crucial part to play in helping Buddhism to spread both throughout Indiaand abroad, and probably built the first major Buddhist monuments.'' Thesemonuments being Asoka’s edicts that were discovered around India and further.Furthermore , “He went on pilgrimages to Lumbini and Bodh Gaya, sent teachingmonks to various regions in India and beyond its borders, and he was familiarenough with the sacred texts to recommend some of them to the monasticcommunity.” Strongly identified as a Buddhist, Asoka clearly believed that theteaching of Buddhism should be taught to others and took it upon himself tospread the word.4. Does being a ruler agree with Buddhism? Do you think Buddhist teaching is effectivein building an empire?- Although we have no recordings of how effective Asoka’s reforms were during his rulingor how long they lasted, it can be said that other monarchs throughout the ancientBuddhist world were encouraged to look at his style of government as an ideal to follow.A ruler does need to lead by example to earn the respect of the people or else you willbe hated and that will raise difficulty in leading a prosperous empire. Even so, I do notthink Buddhism would be an effective teaching in building an empire when you are facedwith defending your country against another or expanding it. While leading by exampleand having the respect of your people, you will still need to potentially protect yourempire from eminems who want to burn it down, so to survive one must sometimes

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CSUDH HIS 120 - Buddhism in India

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