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1 ANTH 145 SPRING 2022 OBJECTIVES FOR EXAM 1 Exam is 250 points 1 000 points total for the class Multiple choice and short answer questions Class 2 Objective Why is studying world prehistory important Explain the examples of the uses of prehistory presented in the lecture What are some examples of the misuse of prehistory by politicians see Communism and Nazism Class 3 Objectives What are the primary sources of information on hunting and gathering people What are the limitations of each of these sources of information What are the characteristics of the foraging mode of production How did the foraging mode of production enable people to colonize the old and new worlds and adapt to rapid climate change What did hunter gatherers know about cultivation Class 4 Objectives What are the Pleistocene Holocene What was climate like in these periods What are the String of Pearls and Leap Frog Models of continental colonization How do archaeologists and scientists reconstruct human migrations What are mitochondrial DNA Y chromosomes and recombinant DNA How are they used to reconstruct human migration What are some of the problems with DNA analysis When did anatomically modern humans first leave Africa When did Toba erupt and what impact did it have on humans Class 5 Objectives What was the creative revolution When did it occur What was depicted in the Paleolithic cave art of Europe What challenges did the painters of Paleolithic cave art face How did they meet those challenges What techniques were used to produce the art What methods can we use to interpret this art What are the main theories of the meaning of the art What are the strengths and weaknesses of the theories that have been offered to explain the occurrence of Paleolithic cave art Class 6 Objectives modern humans What are the physical differences between Neanderthals and anatomically When and in what part of the world did Neanderthals live What are mitochondrial DNA and recombinant DNA and how are they used to reconstruct human migration 2 How was the behavior of Neanderthals similar to and different from anatomically modern humans What are some of the different kinds of intelligence According to Steven Mithen what are the five different kinds of intelligence According to Mithen how were Neanderthals cognitively different from anatomically modern humans Class 7 Objectives What was the origins of racism in Europe and North America What are polygenesis and monogenesis What were scientific racism and Aryan Myth What are the main criticism of the idea that race is a valid biological category Why are there different skin colors What is the function of color skin What is melanin What role do sunlight and melanin play in the production vitamin D and folates Why is the global distribution of skin color correlated with intensity of solar radiation What does the statement race is a social construction mean What are some of the ways race is constructed in societies Why aren t their Human subspecies Class 8 Objectives How was the climate and environment in Europe during glacial periods in the Pleistocene different than today How did Pleistocene glaciers form How did the drop in sea level in the Pleistocene change the shape of Europe and Asia Asia What were Pleistocene megafauna When did anatomically modern humans move north into Europe and northern What challenges did anatomically modern humans face when they moved into Paleolithic Europe and northern Asia What major innovations made it possible for anatomically modern humans to thrive in Paleolithic Europe and northern Asia Class 9 Objectives What routes have been proposed for migration into the New World What is the evidence for each route Which is or are the most likely that ancient people used and why Where did Native Americans come from in the Old World What is the evidence How do anthropologists reconstruct migration routes into the New World What does geology tell us about the timing of the colonization of the New World What are two windows for entrance of ancient people into New World and why 3 According to the dental and linguistic evidence how many episodes of prehistoric colonization were there What does the DNA evidence indicate about New World colonization What happened at Olson Chubbuck site during the Paleo Indian period Class 10 Objectives of weather and climate What is the difference between climate and weather Provide specific examples What are some indicators of climate change rather than short term fluctuations in weather Why are these indicators of climate change rather than changes in weather What are the main factors that influence global climate change What are Milankovitch forcings How do archaeologists and natural scientists reconstruct climatic change What was the Yunger Dryas when did it occur and what probably caused it The Dobe Ju hoansi by Richard Lee Chapters 1 thru 7 See Recitation Section assignments The Fifth Beginning by Robert Kelly Chapter 1 Chapter 2 fund out Chapter 3 According to Kelly why is it important to study prehistory What are the four beginnings Do you agree with Kelly s view of the future Why is he optimistic Are you optimistic or pessimistic and why What does Kelly mean by the statement It s not what you find It s what you What are some of the limitations and strengths of archaeology The exam will not cover Chapter 3 This is not a course of paleoanthropology and the discussion of hominin evolution is problematic For instance Kelly proposes that gender specialization men hunt women gather was universal and began with when hominins became bipedal hunters We simply don t have the data to reconstruct hominin gender roles nor do we have large enough samples of hunter gatherer burials to examine gender roles in Pleistocene The argument that breast feeding and childcare prohibits women from hunting is logically flawed and ignores empirical evidence to the contrary 4 In many cultures women share childcare and breastfeeding and there is ample ethnographic evidence of woman hunting in foraging societies Chapter 4 What is Kelly s definition of culture What does he mean when he writes that humans have cultural capacity and that this set us apart from other species What does the statement that human beings understand the world as a symbolic construction mean Mithen argues that human intelligence consists of general intelligence and four specialized modules What are those four modules What are some other forms of specialized intelligence What is

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