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ANTH 145, Spring 2022, Objectives for Exam 3/Final ExamObjectives Kelly, Chapter 6Objectives Class 18, MesopotamiaObjectives Class 19, EgyptObjectives Class 20, AfricaObjectives Class 21, ChinaObjectives Class 24, the AndesObjectives Class 25Objectives Class 26ANTH 145, Spring 2022, Objectives for Exam 3/Final ExamObjectives Kelly, Chapter 6 According to Kelly, why is surplus agricultural production essential for the formation of early states? Agricultural production further enables and grows a region’s carrying capacity, thus allowing the population of the community there to grow. It also gives freedom to those who worked in food production. Those people were elites and bureaucrats, but also the laborers for a state’s “shock-and-awe feats.” Those who were working on pyramids also needed to be supported since they werenot working on fields (all the more reason to increase production).  Why are warfare and social inequality key to the formation of early states? Kinship was within societal classes as opposed to between classes in states. Moving away from connections like kinship led to social inequality and warfare. If we ignore who is and is not related to us, then it is a lot easier to send people to be slaves to build pyramids and plant many crops. People were always violent, despite warfare eventually reaching a point where peace treaties are made. In states, weapons were created for the sole purpose of killing people. With insatiable leaders, same regions were conquered by different people over a long periodof time (contest for power and control). How was violence different in foraging societies and early states? In foraging cities, violence existed, like early states. They were not gentle people, but that did not mean that they were always lethally aggressive towards one another since their culture denied or prevented it. What ever anger they expressed was a result of inner tension and was never done so with the intention to kill people. If they do end up killing someone, it is because they were not thinking. Warfare on the other hand is a calculated risk (impersonal in a sense). It has superficial goals but theachievements and incentives have to include tangible things like slaves, women, food, territory, etc. It solves one problems creates more long-term problems like debt and more enemies.  What did Kelly find when he analyzed ethnographic data on violence in hunting and gathering societies? As population pressure increases so does the incidence of warfare as well as the incidence of homicide (people feeling their resources are being threatened). The need for survival is what causedthese wars.  Why did violence change with the transition from mobile hunting and gathering bands to sedentary agriculturalvillages? Little evidence of violence was found pre-agriculture. More evidence of violence during the growth of agriculture, a time when population was also growing rapidly and carrying capacity was decreasing.  War seems to be a cultural thing as opposed to being a natural thing. For foragers, alliances and connections mattered more than fighting to take over one another. To be in sedentary villages, people had to change. Instead of cooperating with one another, people started to compete against one another with shows of strength and power. Getting prestiege through violence.  What role did the development of social inequality play in the formation of early states?  Looking at laborers who played a large role in building pyramids, temples, marketplaces, roads, etc. could never use those things themselves. They could not wear luxurious clothing and jewelry like aristocrats or even merchants. Poverty is seen in the early states; Inequality began people started to have ownership of objects andtitles that others could not have. When there were people who felt that they were entitled to put other human beings in chains and force them to follow their orders without being given anything in return, that is when inequality began to emerge. 1 Hunter-gatherers were labeled as “egalitarian”; everyone has equal access to resources needed to live; this kind of society kept people and their egos in check to make sure no one thought of themselves as superior Through human nature and the evolution of time, people kept looking for the number 1 type of person because they naturally tend to gravitate towards that Gossip was an important thing to pay attention to in nomadic society; being humble and degrading the value of your achievements was supposed to create a harmonious and stable community. Sedantary village life is what changed the idea of keeping eachother’s egos and selfishness in check How did inequality develop from “egalitarian” hunting and gathering societies? People started looking for #1 Those who did not move needed to look for more sources of food and expand their diets (lower return rate foods). This meant that they needed to put in more time to find the food or get cheap slavery to help. This meant that they needed to invest in tech to help harvest and process crops.  Sedentary villagers would mooch off of other villages if their resources were running low, thus causing the resource of that village to dip. Even then, if they are letting them into their resources, they can control how much they give, claiming it as equal. Their reasoning in giving less would be criticizing them having their community live near smaller streams and not working as hard. Growing populations cause this situation to occur again and again in a vicious cycle.  What role did religion and ideology play in state formation? State elites had to start explaining why they deserved more resources (ideology); belief system that accounts for inequality This ideology permitted different levels of violence and inequality; elites wanted to keep a social order that only gives them benefits them or benefits them the most; they considered themselves more intelligent and religious (more deserving). Religion took a new role in ideologies; people would justify inequality based on who their God was. Religious fundamentalists try to control government (fourth beginning) Objectives Class 18, Mesopotamia What was the environment of Mesopotamia like in the period of state formation? -desert on all sides and beyond that mountains -no forests -annual floods How did the environment influence the

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UNC-Chapel Hill ANTH 145 - Objectives for Exam 3/Final Exam

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