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ANTH 145 SPRING 2022 READING AND LECTURE OBJECTIVES FOR EXAM 2 Chapter 5 Kelly What does Kelly mean by the statement hunter gathers became agriculturalist while trying to become better at at what they already did hunting and gathering P 63 What are optimal foraging models What is the primary assumption of those models What is the Diet Breadth Model Why did acorns have such a low rate of return Why did some California Native American start collecting acorns According to Kelly why did foragers adopt agriculture What is the Neolithic Demographic Shift Why did fertility of women increase with the transition to sedentary farming Class 10 Objectives What is the difference between climate and weather Provide specific examples of weather and climate What are some indicators of climate change rather than short term fluctuations in weather Why are these indicators of climate change rather than changes in weather What are the main variables that influence global climate change What are Milankovitch forcings What methods do archaeologists and natural scientists use to reconstruct climatic What was the Younger Dryas when did it occur and what are the two theories of Objectives Class 11 How did global climate change at the beginning of the Holocene 12 000 to 9000 How did the environments of Europe North America Africa Australia and South America change in the early Holocene Why did so many species go extinct at the beginning of the Holocene What are the three main theories ill kill and the end of the big chill How did people make a living at the Mesolithic sites of Mount Sandel How did the Jomon people of Japan respond to Holocene climate change How did people make a living at the Archaic sites of Black Earth and Gatecliff Shelter How did humans respond to global warming at the beginning of the Holocene What are two general types of adaptation to the Early Holocene Objectives Class 12 What are the three main theories of the origins of domestication What crops and animals were domesticated the Middle East change caused it BC 1 How did the environment and climate of the Middle East change during the Pleistocene Holocene transition How did people cope with those changes How did the Kebaran and Natufian people of the Middle East make a living How did the Pre Pottery Neolithic A B people make a living How is domesticated wheat and barley different from their wild ancestors How long did it take to create the first domesticated wheat and barley Why did some people shift from hunting and gathering to farming in the Middle East in the Early Holocene What role do the Younger Dryas play Objectives Class 13 What plants and animals were domesticated in each of these regions of the New World eastern North America Mesoamerica and the Andes What were the main results of MacNeish s Tehuacan Valley project How did Kent Flannery test theories of the origins of agriculture What were the results of Flannery s project According to Flannery why did foragers domesticate crops in Mesoamerica o Flannery proposed that foragers in Oaxaca started cultivating and domesticating corn beans and squash because cultivation domestication reduced search time increased predictability o What does that mean What type of site was Guila Naquitiz Hunter gatherers selection of genetic traits of annual plants started feedback cycle Where did this feedback lead Why How did the transition to agriculture differ in Mesoamerica the Middle East Objectives Class 14 How did farming herding develop What are the two main processes involved in domestication genetic and environmental engineering Explain these processes How did health and workload change with the introduction of agriculture How did human reproductive ecology change What was the Neolithic Demographic Was agriculture a technological advancement that improved the lives of hunter Shift Why did it happen gatherers What were the advantages and disadvantages of agriculture How did the Pleistocene environment of east Asia differ from the Holocene environment China Korea and Japan What crops and animals were domesticated the east Asia Where did agriculture first develop in the east Asia Where were taro and sugarcane domesticated Objectives Class 15 and Song for Satawal What are the three regions of the Pacific What areas were colonized in each three waves of colonization of the Pacific Where did Polynesian originate in Asia 2 How did Pacific islanders make a living in prehistory How did native sailors in the Pacific navigate between islands in the Pacific How did native sailors find unknown islands Objectives Class 16 and Kirch 1997 What techniques do scientists use to reconstruct the impact of human populations What was the history of human environmental impact and social change on Mangaia on the environment Tikopia Why was the ultimate fate of human societies so different on these two islands Explain in detail your opinion on this question using information from the lecture and the article What do these two case studies tell us about our future on Earth Construct a sound argument to support your answer Objectives Class 17 Define political power What are political power bases What are economic coercive and ideological power bases What are the traits of chiefdoms and states What are pristine states and secondary states Where did pristine states develop What are the three main theories of state formation presented in the lecture What are the main techniques that archaeologists use to study prehistoric states 3

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