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Starting on 7Family Tarsiidae- 1 genus and 7 species - Tropical forest of Borneo, Sumatra, East Indian and Philippine islands - Enormous eyes - Digits with disk-like pads - Elongate hind limbs- Tibia and fibula fused - Calcaneum, navicular super long - Arboreal and nocturnal - insectivorous/carnivorous - Bipedal leaping - Solitary or gregarious (males and females meet while foraging) - Vocalize at 70 kHz (humans hear to ~20 kHz)- Long gestation (6 months), single youngPlatyrrhini- New world - Family Cebidae (marmosets, tamarins, capuchins, squirrel monkeys) - Family Aotidae (night monkeys) - Family Pitheciidae (titi, uakari, saki monkeys) think “pith of fruit” - Family Atelidae (howler, spider, and woolly monkeys) Family Cebidae - 6 genera and 56 species - Marmosets, tamarins, capuchins and squirrel monkeys Marmosets and tamarins - Small (100-750g) omnivores: Chisel-shaped medial incisors. LOVE tree sap- May have manes on head - Lack opposable thumbs and toes - Why would they not have opposable thumbs/digits? - Dexterity is less important, climbing isn’t as important because it would expend too much energy - Claws except hallux: big toe- Why have organisms with those big manes? - Sexual selection - Signalling from raising fur/crests - Fraternal twins share common placenta- Could be considered a kind of back-up- Both sexes communally care for young - Tamarins are polyandrous - Female with many male partners - When would you have this? - Go around and look for the best Capuchin and Squirrel Monkeys - Eat fruit, insects - Long limbs and digits (with nails) - Long furred tail - Big-ish: 750g-4.5kgWhite-Face capuchins, squirrel monkeys: - Sex-linked variation in cones (di-, trichromats with two or three kinds of color-sensitive opsin pigments in eye) Some females can see three colors (red, green, blue) - No big difference in foraging success, baby survival - When it’s sex linked how is it passed on? - The x or y chromosome - Who typically would pass this on? - The mother - Could females get this? - If both x chromosomes carry the gene (mother is a carrier, father has color blindness) Family Aotidae - Night monkeys - 1 genus, 8 species - Nocturnal, territorial- 8 vocalizations (screams, gulps, hoots) - Not dimorphic, Male: primary caregiver Family Pitheciidae- Titi monkeys, saki monkeys and uacaris- 4 genera and 40 species - Diurnal and arboreal- Herbivorous with diastema - Small (2-3kg)- Forage in canopy for fruit, leaves and nuts - Long lived and low reproductive rates- Lethargic in captivity. Why? - Overfed Family Atelidae - Diverse! Howler, spider, woolly monkeys. 5 genera, 24 species - Frugivores, folivores (especially howler monkeys) - Tail long, prehensile - Highly vocal - Ossified, resonating larynx in howlers - Why would they be loud and obnoxious? - Defense against harpy eagles - Diurnal; highly arboreal, social - Males philopatric (stay in natal area), have dominance hierarchies - Females disperse, mate with many partners. Fission-fusion social system - What is a fission-fusion social system? - Splitting up and then coming back together Catarrhini- Old world anthropoid primates - 29 genera and 153 species - Diverged from platyrrhine primates 38-40 MYA - Family Cercopithecidae-baboons and friends - Family Hylobatidae - gibbons - Family Hominidae - great apes Family Cercopithecidae - Baboons (incl. mandrils), colubus, vervet monkeys - 21 genera, 132 species 1.5-50+ kg - Sexual dimorphism in size and color - Large canines (esp. males) - Ischial callosities common - Opposable thumb and big toe - Vervet monkeys steal from human tourists - Less annoying: Colubus. Less strongly opposable thumb Family Hylobatidae - Gibbons- 4 genera, 14 species, 4-11kg- Cool color variation within species: sex, age, individual - Loose, ~ball-socket wrists- Tropical southeastern Asia- Lack tail and cheek pouches - Extremely long forelimbs - brachiation - Siamangs bors ~hairless- Highly vocal Family Hominidae - Includes humans, chimps, orangutan, gorillas - Fossils from early-middle Eocene of Africa and Asia - Anatomically modern humans date to 154-160,000 years ago in Africa - Complex vocal communication (orangutan long calls) - Chimps, bonobos, orangutans: tool use, may have cultures - Gorillas and orangutans nest in trees - Features of living great apes (-humans)- 48-270kg- 2-4x stronger than humans, relative to mass - Big canines - Forelimbs longer than hind limbs - Lack tails - Herbivorous (chimps occasionally carnivorous) - Social systems well-developed - Fission-fusion social systems common: females often disperse to other groups - Male dominance hierarchies Orangutans- Survive long falls easily (flexible padded joints) - Loose associations, except mother-young (6-7 years) - Big adult males mostly solitary, can be sexually aggressive Gorillas - Interposition common for solving conflict: family members calm others, females and young interrupt adult male conflict Common Chimps: - Related males in stressed environments “war” to gain territory- Kill “deserter” males- Less “murder” in closer communities - Cooperative hunting of colubus monkeys Bonobos-pygmy Chimps- “G-G rubbing” reduces social stress, promotes cohesion. Cooperate regardless of relationship - Stands for genital-genital rubbing- Tickle fights CallitrichinaeCebinaeCebidaeAotidaePitheciidaeAtelidaeCercopithecinaeColobinaeCercopithecidaeGorillaPanHomoPongoHylobatidaeTarsiidaeHominidaeHominoideaPlatyrrhini New WorldCatarrhini Old

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UWL BIO 488 - Family Tarsiidae

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