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Eulipotyphla- Order Erinaceomorpha- Hedgehogs, moon rats + gymnures- Order Soricomorpha- Shrews, moles, desmans, solenodons, nesophontids Common Eulipotyphlan Features - Small, narrow snouts - Plantigrade - Short, dense fur - Secretive, nocturnal, insectivorous - W-shaped ectoloph on upper molars Order Erinaceomorpha - Family Erinaceidae - Hedgehogs, gymnures, and moon rats - 10 genera and 24 species - Africa, Eurasia, Southeast Asia - Mouse to rabbit size - Spines in hedgehogs - First upper and lower incisors may be enlarged - Hedgehogs - Omnivorous - Resistant to snake venom- Probably heterothermic - Hibernation in some species - Hylomyinae (gymnures and moon rats) - Southeastern Asia, Malay peninsula, Borneo, Philippines - No spines Hedgehog Skull - Complete zygomatic arch (odd for eulipotyphlans) - Enlarged 1st incisors - Simple nonsectorial cusps on upper molars (omnivory) Hedgehogs: Erinaceinae - Palearctic and Africa - Plantigrade - Solitary except for mother, young- Spines emerge almost immediately after birth Defensive Posture with m. panniculus carnosus - Normal subcutaneous muscle system pulls skin over feet and face Moonrats, Gymnures: Erinaceinae - SE Asia Forests - Touch-sensitive snouts - Carnivorous but like fungi - Mark territory with rotten garlic scent Order Soricomorpha - Family Solenodontidae (solenodons) - Family Nesophontidae (extinct in Holocene) - Family Soricidae (shrews) - Family Talpidae (moles) Family Solenodontidae - 1 genus and 3 species 800 g - Only Haiti and Cuba - Long, slender, flexible snout - Second lower incisor grooved - May transport toxin - Omnivorous and nocturnal - Mammae on buttocks - Zig-zag walking pattern - Echolocation: high frequency clicks - Wide-gauge gait Family Soricidae: Shrews - 26 genera and 376 species - Holarctic, recent dispersal to Africa - 2-3 grams to 180 grams, crazy abundant - Snout long and slim, eyes and pinna small - Insectivorous, some venomous - No zygomatic arch, tympanic bulla (just ring) - Red teeth (most): geothite pigmentation - Upper incisors large, hooked, 2-cusps. Pincers with lower incisors - Others, canines unicuspedSize and Metabolism - Loose heat rapidly: high surface/volume ratio- Eat 2-3 times body weight in ONE DAY - Most live <24 monts - Hot Shrews: >Expected BMR- Temperate climate - Short-lived - Breed in food supply pulse - Cold Shrews: Expected BMR - Longer life, slower turnover Wisconsin Shrews - Blarina brevicauda N. short tailed- Velvety, slate grey color varies with season- Robust body, snout - Small eyes, fur-hidden ears - Forest and field - Pungent odor, toxic saliva (painful to humans) - Sorex hoyi American pygmy shrew - Smallest long-tailed shrew- Furred tail- Friable forest leaf litter - Frequents swamps in NE US and boreal forests Water Shrews - Sorex palustris - Streams and ponds - Fringes of hair on toes - Increase surface area Family Talpidae - Moles, desmans, shrewmoles - North America and Eurasia - Moles: - Deciduous teeth lost in utero - Desmans: - Fast-running mountain streamsTalpidae: Desmans- Russian- Semi-aquatic - Preys on arthropods, amphibians - Like moles, ~blind- Touch with Eimer’s organs on snout - Sensory organ that assists in sensing changes in environment and where prey/predators may be Mole Anatomy - Enormous keel on sternum (manubrium) Why? - Extension of sternum that sticks out, attachment for muscle tissue to power arms - Long flat scapula (Why?) -- Huge hands, twisty humerus - Strength and flexibility to maneuver underground Scalopus aquaticus - Eastern MOle - Broad hands - Slate colored fur, naked tail - Snout pointed, no projections - Prefers moist, sandy loam - Frequently along streams - Glaciated, sandy river valleys Condylura cristata - Star nosed mole: 22 fleshy tentacles - Front feet as broad as long - Tail hairy, constricted near base - Prefer low, wet areas - Good swimmers: forage in water (smell by blowing bubbles, inhaling the air) - Tunnels can open underwater Star-nosed mole tentacles - Eimer’s organ - 25000 touch receptors - Uses three kinds of touch receptors and pain receptors - Note tactile hunting, diversity of habitatsPerissodactyla - 3 families, 6 genera 16 species - Long rostra, molariform teeth - Large cecum: hindgut fermentation - Axis of symmetry of foot -- middle digit (most weight) - Mesaxonic condition Evolution - Arose in late Paleocene in Asia - Europe, North America by early Eocene - Dominant browsers of the Eocene - Began to decline in Miocene - Climatic changes - Competition with artiodactyls Cursorial Trends Among Ungulates - Integration of locomotor and respiratory systems - The visceral piston: - Liver bouncing against diaphragm aids ventilation of lungs during gallop - Pneumatic stabilization: - Tracheal valves shunt air alternately to right and left lungs during stride - Pressure stabilizes shoulder and chest wall during stride as forelimb strikes the ground Increase Stride Length - 1. Increase limb length - Long hands, feet (esp. Metacarpals, -tarsals of palm and flat of foot) - 2. Ungulagrade. Meaning? - 3. No clavicle, rotating scapula - 4. Spine flexion, extensionIncrease Stride Rate - Decrease distal weight (low rotational inertia) - Proximal muscle mass - Tendons run to distal limb- Spring tendons (ligaments) - Big 3rd tochanter of perissodactyls: powerful femoral retractionUngulate Foot Morphology - Mesaxonic: - Central axis: digit 3 - Perissodactyls - Paraxonic: - Central axis between 3,4 - Artiodactyls - Grooved, pulley-like anterior surface of astragulus: - Foot motion: one plane, but BIG range of motion - Artiodactyls only - Nuchal ligament: - Elastically braces head, neck - Spring Ligament: - From digital flexor - Elastic E storage, return Equidae: Arose N. America, Eocene - 1 genus, 8 species - Most species are highly social- Form herds and/or clans- Polygynous mating system - Social hierarchy -- led by dominant stallion- Harems formed in some species - Bachelor herds - Complex behavior and vocal communication- Fission-fusion social system common Equid evolution - Complex branching evolution, not anagensis (=morphing pattern) - Increased size, concave back - Reduction of outer toes - Longer, deeper antorbital region - Increased loph complexity Equidae - Equus evolved in North America - Crossed into Asia in late Pliocene - Horse domestication may date as far back as 4500 years ago in Central Asia - Horses returned to North America with Spanish conquistadores in 1500s - Skull modification- Preorbital

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UWL BIO 488 - Eulipotyphla

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