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Ch 2: - Temporal fenestrae: a hole or opening in the temporal region of the skull - Adductor: muscles that act to move a skeletal element toward the midline of the body - Caniniform: canine shaped - Paraphyletic: a taxonomic group in which all members are descendants of a single common ancestor, but the group does not include all of the descendants of the most recent common ancestor - Acetabulum: the lateral socket on the pelvis that accommodates the ball of the femur - Spatulate: broad and rather flattened with a narrowed base - Lingual: of, or pertaining to, the tongue. Sometimes used to refer to a structure that is onthe tongue side of the toothrow - Secondary palate: the bony partition comprising parts of the premaxilla, maxilla, and the palatine bones that separates the dorsal airway form the nostrils from the oral cavity - Viviparity: the ability to give birth to live young rather than laying eggs - Cheek teeth: the premolar and molar teeth in mammals - Diphyodont: a pattern of tooth replacement involving only two sets of teeth, typically a set of deciduous teeth and a set of permanent teeth - Tarsus: the ankle bone(s)- Ontogenetic: refers to the course of development from a zygote to an adult - Parasagittal: a dorsoventrally oriented plane parallel to the long axis of the body and parallel to the midsagittal plane, or the plane of bilateral symmetry - Epipubic bones: a pair of bones that extend anteriorly from the pubic bones of the pelvis in reptiles, monotremes and most metatherians - Arboreal: living mainly within the crown of trees - Prehensile: capable of grasping by wrapping around an object. Usually refers to tails thatare capable of grasping and holding onto objects- Semifossorial: refers to mammals that are partially, but not completely, adapted for life underground or for digging CH 5: - Cloaca: a common chamber into which the gut, urinary tubes, and the reproductive tubes empty their contents prior to leaving the body - Fossorial: pertaining to an animal that digs burrows for shelter and forages underground - Mastication: the process of chewing - Meroblastic: a type of embryonic cleavage in which the cleavage plane does not pass completely through the embryo before the next cleavage event begins, usually because of the large amount of yolk - Oviparous: a reproductive pattern involving the laying of eggs - Protrusible: capable of being thrust forward - Rhinarium: an area of moist, hairless skin and cartilage surrounding the nostrils - Sclerotic cartilage: a ring of cartilage associated with the tough outer layer of the eye that forms the white area - Telolecithal: refers to eggs that have large amounts of yolk at the vegetal pole relative to the amount of active cytoplasm at the animal pole - Torpor: a type of adaptive hypothermia in which heart rate, body temp and respiration are reduced Ch 6:- Bilophodont: cheek teeth having an occlusal pattern with paired transverse ridges or lophs- Bipedal: walking, hopping, or running usually only on the two hindlegs - Chorioallantoic placenta: a type of placenta, found i eutherians and to a lesser extent in peramelemorph metatherians, composed of an outer chorionic layer and an inner vascularized allantois - Choriovitelline placenta: often called a “yolk sac placenta,” found in metatherians (exceptbandicoots) in which there are no villi and there is only a weak connection to the uterus- Coprophagy: the eating of feces - Crescentic: crescent shaped - Didactyl: refers to a condition where there are two digits - Digitigrade: a foot posture in which the balls of the feet (metapodial pads) support the weight and the “heel” of the hand or foot is off the ground, as in cats and dogs - Diploid number: the total number of chromosomes in the cell nucleus of a somatic cell - Embryonic diapause: a period of arrested development of the blastocyst typical of macropods (kangaroos and wallabies) - Endemic: pertaining to a species that is native to a given geographic region and is not found in any other regions - Gestation: the period of time from fertilization to birth in mammals that have embryos that develop within the body of the mother - Land bridge: a dry land connection between land masses that forms a potential migration or dispersal route - Marsupium: an external pouch formed by folds of skin in the abdominal wall that encloses the mammary glands and serves as a protective incubation chamber for the young in many metatherians and some monotremes - Monodactyl: having a single functional digit in the manus or pes - Plantigrade: a style of locomotion in which the entire sole of the foot (including the heel or proximal ends of the metapodials) touches the ground - Procumbent: pertaining to teeth that project forward - Ricochetal: a style of saltatorial locomotion that involves quick changes in the direction of travel - Saltatorial: a style of locomotion involving repeated jumping or leaping - Serrate: condition in which the edge of a structure is toothed or notched as in a saw blade- Sympatric: refers to two or more populations that occupy the same or overlapping geographic areas - Syndactyly: a condition in which certain of the digits in metatherians (usually 2nd and 3rddigits) are fused and share a common sheath of skin - Unicuspid: referring to a tooth with a single cusp, such as a canine tooth - Warren: a communal series of burrows used by a group of rabbits Ch 8: - Adaptive Radiation: evolutionary diversification of numerous species from a common ancestor that colonized a new environment. Rapid cladogenetic event - Facultative Monogamy: Monogamous depending on the circumstances or condition - Heterothermic: animals that normally have high body temperatures regulated by metabolic heat production, which can also allow their body temperatures to drop close toambient temperatures - Intraspecific: between individuals of the same species; within one species - Palmar: the ventral surface of the hand/foot - Postpartum Estrus: period after birth where a female mammal will permit copulation - Seismic Signals: communication signal made by kangaroo rats and other burrowing rodents that involves striking the ground to produce a series of low-frequency vibrations that travel through the ground - Stridulating Organ: organ capable of producing sound by the rubbing together of modified hairs (in tenrecs) or parts of the exoskeleton (insects) - Thermal Conductance: heat loss from the skin surface to the environment- Thermal Neutral Zone:

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UWL BIO 488 - Vocab

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