Unformatted text preview:

Afrosoricida- Family Tenrecidae (tenrecs and otter shrews) - 10 genera and 30 species - Family Chrysochloridae (golden moles) - 9 genera and 21 species Tenrecidae - Madagascar, Comoro islands, w. Central africa (otter shrews) - Fossils known from Mioccene of Africa - Dispersed to Madagascar 55 MYA - Tenrecs retain many ancestral traits: plantigrade, pentdactyl hands and feet; insectivory, large litters, cloaca - Pentdactyl: having five toes/fingers - Males lack scrotum (analogous to elephants) - Echolocation with tongue clicking: for topographic orientation and prey capture - Prolonged courtship, induced ovulation - Shrew - to rabbit sized- Long snout and small eyes - Fur may have spines - Insectivorous or omnivorous - Inhabit rainforests, dry deciduous forest, and deserts in madagascar Tenrec eucaudatus - Common or tailless tenrec- Head-body length 250-400mm, tail length 10-16mm- Mixed spines and hairs, roll into defensive posture - Nest under rocks, in hollow logs, hibernates in tunnel that it plugs during dry season - Solitary except for mother and young - 1 litter/year average litter size is 15 Microgale dobsoni - Dobson’s shrew tenrec - Non-spiny, large tail - Forages on forest floor for invertebrates - Stores body fat, torpid during dry season - Monogamous pair-bonding Hemicentetes semispinosus- Lowland streaked tenrec- Mid-back quills stridulatory- Stridulatory: producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts - Mother-young communication - forest-dweller , retreats to burrows in day, active at night - Eats arthropods, wormsTenrecidae- Subfamily Potamogalinae (otter shrews) - Western and central Africa - Highly specialized for semi-aquatic life - Flat rostrum (snout) with stiff vibrissae- Small eyes and reduced ear pinna - Body long and streamlined - Tail laterally compressed and used for swimming - Limnogale webbed hind feet - Forages in rivers and streams for aquatic insects and crustaceans - Nocturnal - Nimba otter shrew (Micropotamogale lamottei) - Hunts crustaceans, tadpoles along riverbanks Chrysochloridae (golden “moles”)- Fossils date to Miocene of Kenya - Highly fossorial (digging) lifestyle - Ears lack pinnae and ear canal covered with fur - Eyes vestigial (covered with skin and fur)- Leathery snout pad - Skull conical - Differing from marsupial mole - Differ from Talpidae (moles): - Deciduous teeth not lost in utero- Zygomatic arch complete - Tympanic bullae - Feed on legless lizards - Mammae in cup-like thoracic depressions - Forelimbs powerfully built - used for digging - Digits 2 and 3 bear huge claws - Massive malleus used to detect seismic signals: low frequency sounds - Eremitalpa swims through sand forearms, head shoulders - Huge olecranon process of ulna: triceps - Ossified tendon: hand flexors Order Macroscelididea Family Macroscelididae - elephant shrews Macroscelidea - Elephant shrews (or sengis) - 4 genera and 16 species - Fossils date to Eocene of northern Africa - Disjunct distribution across sub-Saharan Africa- Long, mobile nsout - Long, slender legs adapted for unning - Large eyes and prominent ears - Complete auditory bulla - Complete zygoma - Palatal vacuities - Inhabit open plains to tropical forests - Mostly insectivorous - Scent marking (anal and shoulder glands) and foot drumming attract mates to territory - Some species use behavioral thermoregulation (basking) - Cecum (diverticulum of the intestinal tract at the junction of the small and large intestines) is present - Insectivora like trait - W-shaped ectolophs like shrew, hedgehog- Even bigger palatal fenestrae than some marsupials Spectacled Elephant Shrew - Diurnal, large eyes and ears - Monogamous - Breeding pair defends territory - Intricate paths, cleaned regularly Tubulidentata - Single species (Orycteropus afer)- Inhabits sub-Saharan Africa - Fossils appear in Miocene of southen Europe, Middle east, and Africa - Powerful digger - Feeds on termites and ants - Big: adults up to 80kg - Long skull + slender dentary, 30-cm tongue Aardvark- Low metabolic rate and body temp- Great sense of smell:- Extensive nasoturbinals (bony scrolls deep in nasal cavity) - Enlarged olfactory centers - Specialized nostrils, fleshy tentacles and hairs that seal openings Starting slide 34Tubulidentata- Dismantle termite mounds with powerful forelimbs- Slow metabolism- When danger happens for them the ability to burrow is important - Burrows: retreats for hyenas, ground squirrels, monitor lizards, warthogs - For water, eat fruits of cucurbit - Column-shaped teeth - Teeth - Ever-growing - Use to gring down chitin/skeletins of what theyre eating - Formula: 0/0, 0/0, 2/2, 3/2 = 18- Each is rootless, up to 1500 hexagonal prisms - Each prism has slender, tubular pulp

View Full Document

UWL BIO 488 - Lecture 10

Documents in this Course
Load more
Download Lecture 10
Our administrator received your request to download this document. We will send you the file to your email shortly.
Loading Unlocking...

Join to view Lecture 10 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.

We will never post anything without your permission.
Don't have an account?
Sign Up

Join to view Lecture 10 2 2 and access 3M+ class-specific study document.


By creating an account you agree to our Privacy Policy and Terms Of Use

Already a member?