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1 1 It reinforces the naturalness of the heterosexual matrix 2 It polices the margins 3 It teaches us how to perform gender 2 2 2022 1 The Media s role 2 D 3 D 4 D 5 D 6 D 2 7 2022 1 Ideology 1 Superstition 1 Widely held belief 2 Overly credulous 3 Incorrectly attributes causation 4 Ex horoscopes ghosts bad luck tarot cards 2 In all superstition wise men follow fools and arguments are fitted to practice in a reversed order Sir Fraces Bacon 3 Its an inversion of logic and reality people lay aside their suspicion to follow people of whom they should be suspicious 4 Rather than examine our world and thinking critically about our condi tions 5 People form their arguments to better rationalize their world what they already do the way you already see the world 6 Ideology in politics is superstition that serves a particular function 7 Managing ideas some true some false some distorted some irrele vant that when taken together help sustain and legitimate a domi nant political paradigm 8 We are socialized to accept beliefs about our world that are widely held overly credulous and incorrectly attribute causation critical the ory is centered on teaching us to challenge 2 Marx and Engel s THeory Historical Materialism 2 1 Humans distinguish themselves from animals by changing their envi ronment consciously to satisfy basic needs food shelter safety 2 The satisfaction of these needs leads to the creation of new needs that must bow be met 3 The method by which we satisfy these needs is the mode of reduc tion snd contains certain ways of organizing class 4 They way these needs are satisfied determine our consciousness 3 The Frankfurt school 1 Sought to understand the politics of culture 2 Formed in response to raising Fascism in Europe 4 Critical theory 1 One cannot determine what good a free society would like from within the society which we now live in We lack the means But in our work we can bring up the negative aspects of this society which we want to change Marx Horkheimer 2 Sought to explain the means by which ideology kept working people from experiencing true freedom 3 Expose and challenge the myths and super 5 Standardization 1 Art succumbs to formula genre 2 Plotlines follow predictable paths 3 Time and look of artistic works must conform to various standards and fulfill expectations 6 Pseudo Indivudalization 4 All driven by commercial imperatives to maximize profit 1 Capitalism conveys myth of the individual and of the rebel 2 People want to express themselves as being different from the crowd 3 Desire to stand out from the crowd creates new market opportunities 4 For Adorno and Horkheimer all culture is predigested with 3 2 9 7 Antonio Gramsci Italian Marxist imprisoned in Mussolimin s fascist Italy 1 2 Wrote the Prison Notebooks filled with musings about capital ideology and American industrial labor 3 His most well known contribution is on the topic of hegemony 4 Why do the powerless consent to be dominated by those in position of power 8 What is hegemony It is the dominance of one section of society over another 1 2 Through the use of consent not coercion or outright force 3 In which the ruling class ideas are sustained and perpetuated through language culture and media 4 And the ideas circulate as common sense 5 Marx said that lived experience produces ideology and that is how people made sense of new information 6 But hegemony says people look to common sense to understand new information 9 Through consent 1 According to Gramsci we will consent to domination if enough people can derive enough material benefits from the arrangement Middle class In other words we consent to be dominated if we believe it is tempo rary or that the benefits will soon increase 3 The Deserving Poor vs The Underserving Poor 2 10 Southern Strategy New Deal deeply racist Conversation 1 Southern Whites staunch Democrats Hated Republicans favored the 2 Robert Novak conservative journalist after 1963 Republican National 3 A good many perhaps a majority if the party s leadership envision substantial political gold to bee mined in the racial crisis by becoming in fact though not in name the White Man s Party 4 Nixon in 1968 and 1974 11 Effectiveness of Southern Strategy 4 12 Nixon s Dog Whistles 13 The ruling ideas 1 John Ehrlichman Nixon s advisor on domestic affairs when asked about the War on Drugs 1 According to Gramsci the ruling class is able to regularly introduce their ideas through the media 2 Which popularizes their own ideas and discredits counter ideas 14 Common Sense is Produced 1 Oppositional voices are marginalized critiques of the system are dis 2 Media focuses own aesthetics so they do not have to engage the mes credited sage 15 Hegemony happens 1 When we see problems through the eyes if the ruling class elites 2 When we allow corporations powerful interests to co opt social move ments and ideas for their own ends 3 Redirection vs action 5 Week 4 2 14 16 Liberal feminism LVZ p 27 17 Liberal feminist media criticism 1 Sex role stereotypes A women s place is in the 2 Prescriptive sex appropriate behavior Slut prude no sex before mar riage abortion regulation 3 Appearance dress codes 4 Limited demonstration of interests and skills 18 Radical Feminism LVZ p 27 1 Patriarchy a social system in which all men are assumed to dominate and impress all women 2 Pornography and Rape Culture departure from liberal feminism 3 Media technology E g Assumed male gaze of film conventions 4 Lack of alternative perspectives 5 The media strategy of radical feminism are straightforward women should create their own means of communication p 28 19 Socialist feminism 1 In socialist feminist discourse capitalism s need for a group of people to perform domestic and care about labor without wages his responsi ble for women s subordinated place in society 2 Capitalism benefits from creating or exacerbating differences in iden tify and class 3 Critiques 1 Reproduction of labor power 2 Economic value of domestic labor 3 Equal pay for equal work 4 Reduced work time 5 Reform the mainstream media so that its messaging no longer nor malizes the patriarchal capital order 20 All these perspectives offer us ways too continue to critique the media all contain limitations problems 6 21 D 2 16 22 Post feminism 1 A therm used to describe the ways I n which notions of gender and sexuality have changed as a russet go the feminist movement 2 Predicated on the belief that since feminism successfully pointed out sexism in out society

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UW-Milwaukee JAMS 111 - Notes

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