LSC BIOL 2401 - Exam II Review Information

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Chapter 9:Microbial GeneticsExam II Review InformationChapter 6: Viruses- Define virus.o What is meant by obligate intracellular parasite? It must live inside a living cell (must havea host) o Compare/contrast viruses to living cells. VIRUSES: cant reproduce on their own, do not respond to stimuli, no homeostasis, and do not metabolize - Describe virus structure with regard too Capsid: a coat of protein that is around the nucleic acid, protects the genome, gives the virus shape, and is composed of sub units called capsomeres o Envelope: outer envelope of fat, protein, and carbohydrates derived from the membrane of host cell and they have spikes that attach to host. o Types and nature of nucleic acid: - Know the steps in the correct order for viral infection. (What events occur and what viral or cell structures/proteins participate?) - 1. Adsorption - virus binds to the host cell.- 2. Penetration - virus injects its genome into host cell.- 3.Uncaoated: freeing the viral RNA into the cell cytoplasm - 4.synthesis: replication and protein production: under the control of viral genes the cell synthesizes the basic components of new viruses RNA molecules, capsomeres, spikes- 5.Maturation - viral components assemble and viruses fully develop.- 6. Release - newly produced viruses are expelled from the host cell.- What do the following terms mean? Be able to name/give at least 2 examples of each. o Host range: range of host species or cell types which a particular virus, bacteria, or parasite is able to infect or parasite. EX: hepatitis B can only infect liver cells and polio primarily infects nerve cells and intestines o Virion: a fully formed extracellular virus that is virulent and able to establish infection in a host is called a viron. EX: virions attach to the host. HIV is specific to where it only binds toa certain cell and so does same with influenza o Cytopathic effects: virus induced damage to the cell that alters its microscope. structural changes in a host cell resulting from viral infection. CPE occurs when the infecting virus causes lysis (dissolution) of the host cell or when the cell dies without lysis because of its inability to reproduce. Appearance. EX: inclusion bodies because the induce changes in the host and breakage and translocation leads to transformation to a tumor cell with loss of growth. o Latency: inactive over a long period of time EX: herpes simplex and also chicken pox leads to shingles in adults o Teratogen: Medicine) any substance, organism, or process that causes malformations in afetus. Teratogens include certain drugs (such as thalidomide), infections (such as German measles), and ionizing radiationo Transformation: permenatley alter the genetic material of the cell leading to cancero Oncogenesis: viruses that lead to cancer. Leads to cancer EX: HPV and HepatitisMore helpful info can be found at: lytic and lysogenic bacteriophage replication. KNOW THE STEPS! LOOK AT POWER PT- Why can’t viruses be grown on a Petri dish of agar like bacteria? How are they grown in the lab?Because they have to have a live host For the viruses we studied in class (HSV I and II and HIV), know:- Correct name and type of virus (what type of nucleic acid, envelope or not) enveloped - Types of cells affected: skins and mucous membranes - Symptoms, course of illness: sensitivity, burning when pee, open lesions around mucousmembranes like on mouth or gential - Mode of transmission: oral lessions or sex-Chapters 7 - 9Vocabulary:Essential nutrient: substance in food that must be obtainedfrom the diet because the body cant make it in sufficient amounts Binary fission: starts out as one then it splits into 2 Generation time: the doubling time is the period oftime for a quantity to double in size or value Gene: DNA and chromosomes Nucleotide: make up basic DNA and RNA molecules. Replication: DNA to DNA (main enzyme is DNA polymerase) Transcription: DNA to RNA (RNA polymerase) Translation: RNA to Protein (Ribosome: transcribes RNA toproteins Operon: genetic regulatory system found in bacteria and their viruses in which genes coding for functionally related proteins are clusteredalong the DNA Inducer: One that induces, especially a molecule that is usually a substrate of a specific enzyme pathway, combining with an active repressor produced by a regulator gene to deactivate the repressor.Repressor: Genetics A proteinthat binds to an operator, blocking transcription of an operon and the enzymes for which the operon codes.Mutation: permanent changein the DNA sequence of a genes DNA sequence that canalter the amino acid sequence Nonsense mutation: results ina smaller chain (stop codon codes earlier) Frame shift mutation: addition or deletion of a nucleotide Conjugation: a form of sexual reproduction in which results in an exchange of genetic information Plasmid: circular DNA that replicate independently of bacterial chromosome Psychrophile: cold tempMesophile: normal tempThermophile: hot temp Aerobe: O2Facultative anaerobe: usually aerobic res but sometimes can transfer to anaerobic Obligate anaerobe: must grow in the absence of O2Acidophile: flourish in acidity pH’s Alkaliphile: grows more likely in basic pH’s Halophile: like a lot of salt Metabolism: all the chemical reactions in an organismConstitutive enzyme: produced in constant amounts without regard to concentration of the substrate Induced enzyme: : enzyme produced by a cell in response to the accumulationor addition of a particular substance Redox reaction: RIGEndospore: Catalase: helps break down a reaction Chapter 7: Elements of Microbial NutritionWhat do the following terms mean: micronutrient: only needed in small amounts EX: Fe: helps produce red blood cells and Cl: helps regulate water and electrolytes , macronutrient: needed in large amounts EX: carbs, proteins, and fats , trace element: sometimes reffered to as micronutrients like iodine ? Knowexamples of each.What are 3 ways bacteria adjust to limited nutrients? Adjust metablolic rates, utilize differet nutrients, increase uptake and metablolis of nutrients Differences between simple and facilitated diffusion: facilitated diffusion means that it needs a passage simple can just move across the membrane Differences between facilitated diffusion and active transport: active needs energy What happens to cells placed in the following

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LSC BIOL 2401 - Exam II Review Information

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